Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Adaptive Physical Education by Steven Symes

Adaptive Physical Education Games By Steven Symes, eHow Contributor Children with disabilities may not be able to participate to the fullest extent in a regular physical education class. Modified activities for children with disabilities can be employed either in a class with children who have no limitations or in a class composed entirely or students with disabilities. 1. Soccer * Soccer fields cover large areas, so decrease the size of the field to reduce the amount of movement required to play the game. If necessary, restrict running so players can participate by walking. Children who use a wheelchair can hold the ball on their laps while they move around the soccer field. Instead of using the traditional soccer ball, use a Nerf ball or other soft material ball to reduce the risk of injury. For children that have visual impairments, use goals that have an element that makes noise when the ball hits it, such as a bell. Basketball * Instead of using the traditional basketball, use different-size balls to make gripping the ball easier. Allow for two-handed dribble so students can maintain control of the ball. An adjustable basketball stand is helpful so the basket can be lowered when the students are first learning how to play the game. Also use larger basketball hoops to make scoring easier. A motion-activated beeper attached to the underside of the basketball hoop will help students with visual impairments know when to shoot the ball. Tennis * Use larger balls that do not fly as quickly through the air to slow down the game play. Remove the center net so students are able to play without constant interruption. Consider using a tee for students to serve the ball from. Allow disabled students to play in pairs with other students who assist in playing the game. For visually impaired students, brightly colored balls help them see the ball. Softball * Instead of traditional softballs and mitts, use balls and mitts with Velcro attached to them. Also use a bat that is larger than the traditional-size bat, making it easier for students to hit the ball. Shrink the size of the diamond so students do not need to run as far to the bases. For students in wheelchairs, use a tee instead of pitching the ball. Consider using balls that have built-in beepers to assist students with visual impairments. * ALEX Resume/CV Parsingwww. hireability. com/ALEX/ale HireAbility is the most accurate & fastest! Fully hosted. Simple setup * The Perfect Golf Swing? PerfectConnectionGolfSwing. com Rebel PGA Instructor Claims He Can Add 20-30 Yards to Anyone's Swing! * Resources for PE Teachingwww. peoffice. co. uk PE Schemes, Lesson Plans, PE Level Descriptors,Assessment,Free lessons * Calm Autism for Freewww. calmautism. com Improve behaviors and sensory issues with proven program Adaptive PE Activities * Adaptive physical education is designed to modify typical activities, addressing the individual needs and abilities of students with development delays or disabilities. The federal government mandates adaptive PE activities through the special education law USCA 1402 (25). Modifying typical activities for the atypical child is fairly easy and provides fun and exercise for all children. Basketball * To modify playing the game of basketball depends upon the particular disability. For students with motor skill delays such as hand-eye coordination, larger balls for easier manipulation can be used. Use a larger net size and consider lowering the height of the goal. Change the rules, such as to allow traveling or two-handed dribbling. Slow the pace and timing down. Students who use wheelchairs can either dribble from the chair with peers pushing the wheelchair—or allow them to carrying the ball in their lap as they hand-wheel down the court. Visually impaired students would benefit from an audio prompt such as a beeper ball or audio sound at the basket. Softball * Developmental delays will require you to modify the equipment used for students. Use Velcro balls and mitts to allow better success at catching a ball. Increase or decrease the size of the bats for better accuracy at hitting. Batting tees will increase the chance of making contact with the ball, especially in the early stages of learning the game. Scale back the size of the playing field and the distance between bases. Peer partner students, which increases success but is also beneficial for student awareness and understanding of disabilities. Changes rules such as tag-outs and increase the number of hitting attempts. Everyone-runs Kickball * Running, no matter your skill or speed, is a great cardio-workout. This version of kickball is fun for all students. The kicking team selects one person to kick and everyone on the team runs to the bases. The game can be scored one of two ways, either when the entire team crosses the home base or the traditional way of scoring each run before receiving three outs. The fielding team must get the ball and pass it to each and every team member and finally to the pitcher. Play stops when pitcher has the ball. Students can be peer partnered for running, fielding and pitching. References * PE Central: Adapted Physical Education * PE Central: Adapted Activities/Basketball * PE Central: Adapted Activities/Softball Resources * Heartland Area Education Agency: Adapted PE

How Successful Was Lenin’s Attempt to Create an Alternative Modernity in Russia by 1929?

How successful was Lenin’s attempt to create an alternative modernity in Russia by 1929? Overview The aim of this essay is to discuss how successful Lenin’s policies were in his attempt to create an alternative modernity in Russia by his death in 1924. By scrutinizing his actions and their individual impacts in relation to the desired modernity, historians can assess whether Lenin achieved the socialist dream he sought for. I will break down the essay into three components from which I can individually conclude their successfulness as an alternative modernity. These shall be established in the introduction. Introduction The introduction will firstly discuss the crisis of modernity in the inter-war period in order to put Lenin’s rise to power and subsequent desire for a new society in context. This includes the general political and social crisis surrounding the propagating theories of nineteenth century thought. I will introduce the notion of a ‘socialist utopia’ and state the aims such a society seeks to establish. I will indicate that my concluding thoughts are to be that Lenin undoubtedly created an alternative modernity in Russia; however it is clear that by the time of his death he regarded Russia as communist work in progress and realized that much had to be done in order to reach the preferred modernity envisioned by Marx and Engels. Russia achieved a society which was, in practice, a form of success but ideologically was less successful at achieving the state it required. Section 1 The first section will convey the new means and ways of the Russian government and compare this to what Lenin wanted for his party at the time and what Lenin had hoped would happen to the government eventually according to Marxist beliefs. I will consider the success of the revolution in 1917 and the way in which the government consolidated its power in the years thereafter. In order to do this I will need to examine the ways in which Lenin secured emancipation of the working class according to Marx teachings because it is using these beliefs that a utopia hoped to be established. This includes the interpretation that authoritarianism would fix inter-war society in a time of fear and doubt. Other successes to consider include the ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’, the support for the Bolshevik Party and communism, uniting the workers of the world for revolution, the ability to spread communism, and the path to the ultimate stateless society. Section 2 The second section refers to the economic alternative that communism had to offer and assesses the success of the new method in following the socialist tradition. I will note how the new forms of economic control were successful in that it transformed Russian economy into a more ‘modern’ system, however even though the system was undoubtedly communist, there were still capitalist elements that were not characteristic of the alternative modernity that Russia claimed allegiance to. I will discuss the success of Lenin’s policies such as ‘War Communism’ and the ‘New Economic Policy’ (NEP), considering how they adhered to the ideology on which they were based and whether they were economically successful or not. Section 3 The last section will establish whether society and culture was also revolutionized in the endeavor to create a new form of society. Modernism attempts to create culture and indeed, anything that could influence culture was used in order to consolidate and maintain support of communism from the Russian people. The egalitarian option that socialism offers was applied in many areas of society in the hope that it would create a better, stronger and more content social order. This includes the emancipation of women which is an ideological consideration concerning the communist ideas of equality between the sexes. In this case practical needs were judged more important than ideological needs as reversal of many reforms concerning women were deemed essential to the regimes survival. Other cultural revolts that must be assessed include the attitude and dealings with the Orthodox Church, the use of arts and popular culture and the rise of propaganda. Conclusion The conclusion will state that Lenin did create of form of modernity that was different from anything politics had ever seen and that he did enjoy variations of success in comparison to the state of tsar ruled Russia, however this success was often limited and short lived. Lenin had to adapt his Marxist beliefs many times in order to make them a feasible option for Russia. Indeed, he did successfully create an alternative modernity but he failed to obtain the socialist utopia which was his ultimate goal as practical want trumped the ideological battle. The quest for an alternative modernity was never meant to happen in Lenin’s lifetime, he was merely the instigator for what he hoped would develop into his idea of a perfect community. In this light, historians must conclude that Lenin was successful in achieving the starting point from which a utopia could emerge.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Problems Encountered by the Students Introduction Essay

The continuous learning of students through the help of books, teachers, and even Internet is a fact which shows that knowledge still flourishes in our humanity. Life as a student is said to be fun yet also stressful. Requirements, reports, and especially examinations abound student’s life especially during the high school life. In many cases, students of today’s society are often provided with poor study skills, preventing them of all chance for a satisfying grade. Studying is a major concept of education, and if the problem continues more and more students will be rejected from opportunities they wished they’d had. Opportunities that include future education at college, a chance to gain important knowledge, or even an opportunity to receive a high-paying job. Traditionally, teachers are encouraged to believe that the learning environment must be orderly and quiet. However, more teachers are using activities occurring at the same time can make for noisy classrooms. But it would a mistake to conclude that in such classrooms student are not learning. Student that practice disruptive behavior cause disciplinary problems in the classrooms student and have negative efforts on student it may also lead to low achievement. The importance of the study emerged from the fact that the above literature indicated that classroom problems face the teachers, and try to investigate those problems in order to come up with solutions. In student’s mental abilities, teachers face in the classroom a group of students who suffer from the slow down, faltering and failure in learning and they need more time than their colleagues need to accomplish any learning task. Such students are characterized by a number of characteristics, including problems of language, oral expression, and unable to pay attention, memory problems, and the dispersal of attention. The family lifestyle and environment will put its mark on controlling the behaviors of students. Some student’s behavior can be unacceptable at school. Also, the level of behavior that is acceptable and allowed in the  family, the way the family acts with one another, leads the student to unacceptable performance in the school. Parents indirectly share in creating problems when they insist on their kid’s grades, and achievements to be always high. This lead to feeling of anger, and worry, and create student behavioral problems inside the classroom.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Business Process Management at Pizza Hut Coursework

Business Process Management at Pizza Hut - Coursework Example In this report the core focus will be the business operations of Pizza Hut that makes it a renowned and established brand in the Market. The linkage of different business operations over one another and how Pizza Hut maintains consistency in its operations in all the regions of the world where it operates, will also be highlighted. Pizza Hut, Background Pizza Hut originates from the largest economy in the world, United States of America. It is a multination restaurant franchise that offers its customers with a varied range of pizzas as the primary offering. Over the period of time the Pizza Hut Menu has been revitalized bearing in mind the constantly rising needs and demands of the customers and the dynamics of the competition. In the contemporary market environment Pizza Hut offers its customers with sidelines such as chicken and Buffalo wings, garlic breads and salads in addition with to the primary product, pizza. Pizza Hut came into existence in 1958 in America as the first ever national pizza chain and since then it has grown and developed as a major player in the fast food industry. Over the period of time Pizza Hut got a strong standing in the industry and today it has risen as a strong and challenging competitor to one of the largest food brands in the world such as KFC, Mc Donald’s, Indulge, Smart Chicks and Pizza Track. ... Weekends, midnights and various other seasonalities were introduced by Pizza Hut to make sure that it caters to the needs of all kinds and types of customers in all parts of the world where it operates. This creative and unmatchable value proposition maintained by Pizza Hut has made it operational in more than 90 different countries in the world with thousands of outlets employing more than thirty thousand people (Pizza Hut, 2011). Organizational Structure The formal structure of an organization, the chain of command and delegation of authority are key principles that determine the success of any organization in the market place. Initially Pizza Hut was a co-inception of two brothers Franky and Dan in a small town located in Kansas. The project grew by leaps and bounds, and the business that was initiated with mere $600, now had hundreds of branches across the state and the country. In 1972, the company went public and was listed in the New York Stock Exchange. Pizza Hut was welcomed at the stock market as a blue chip investment with guaranteed returns to its stakeholders and share holders. The company is reported to have issued some 400,000 common equity shares to the investors in the general public. This investment boosted the cash inflows for the company and resulted in an unexpected situation for the management. Pizza Hut instead of growing at a stable and sustainable rate, started to inflate. Some landmarks such as achieving million dollar sales in the US alone and opening of outlets in Munich and Sydney in the very same year. This extraordinary pace of growth and development would have been seen as signs of prosperity and success by the shareholders but the management looked

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Vodun and African culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Vodun and African culture - Essay Example They believe there exists a hierarchy of inferior creations, the vodun that vary in strength from Superior deities that govern nature forces and societies of men to the individual streams’ spirits, rocks and trees, an expression considered sacred. Another belief is that God cannot contend with the humans, which makes the Vodun the core of religious life. This element of Vodun religion bears a resemblance to Trinity and angles and saints intercession-making Vodun very compatible with Catholicism and generally Christianity. A strong syncretistic Haitian Vodou was conceived as a result. Tying of souls is another phenomenon in Vodun. They believe in tying a soul in something tangible and physical (Robinson, pg. 72). A person is linked to another person using a soul tie, which commonly links the living and the dead and it is a form of a curse. The key and core Vodun aspect is performing healing to the people from illnesses. Houngans and Mambo arguably have a dominant role in healing. Healing performed in Vodun is a combination of faith healing (using Iwa’s help and some other spirits), herbal medicine, and the western medicine is gaining popularity in many Vodun healing practices (McGee. pg. 28

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Management Information Systems at Wal-mart Essay

Management Information Systems at Wal-mart - Essay Example The intention of this study is Wal-mart as the largest retail company in the world that has been on the top of Fortune’s 500 list for several years. It is also the largest employer in the world. Wal-mart deals in general merchandise as well as specialized product lines such as pharmacy, tire and lube express and photo processing. Wal-mart sells high quality branded products to its customers at the lowest prices. Wal-mart achieves this seemingly contradictory combination right using advanced management information systems. In addition, it makes special long term contracts with big suppliers and removes middlemen. The basic idea behind Wal-mart’s business is discount merchandising that is keeping margins low by selling at a large discount but improving the top-line by selling a very large volume of products. In realizing Wal-mart’s corporate strategies in practice, management information systems have played the most significant role. Wal-mart’s supply chain is considered the best in the world due to a very efficient use of information technology. This is the company’s core competency. Wal-mart has been a pioneer of many supply chain management practices based on advanced information systems. The use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is the biggest and most recent of these. The following sections discuss the use of management information systems used by Wal-mart and the strategic advantages derived by the company as a result of them. 3. Wal-mart’s Inventory Management System Wal-mart uses an inventory management system called Retail Link. This system allows the suppliers to have a look at the number of products of each type at the shelves in each retail store of Wal-mart at any given time. In addition, the system gives information about the sales rate for any period say an hour, a day, a week or a year. The suppliers also get real time information about the time of the day their products sell, the accompanying produ cts which it sells and other details. All this information helps the supplier companies in efficient inventory management. In many cases, Wal-mart leaves the stock decisions entirely to the supplier companies. This saves considerable costs in administration. The inventory risks such as stock-outs are hence transferred to the suppliers. This leads to a significant cost reduction (PriceWaterHouseCoopers, 2010). 4. Channel Partnership with big companies through information systems Wal-mart has forged several strategic partnerships with major supplier companies. These partnerships have been facilitated by modern information systems and flawless execution. A prominent case study is the strategic partnership between Wal-mart and Procter & Gamble. Both the companies are major players in their sectors. They have developed a common supply chain information sharing channel to better co-ordinate the supply chain activities. What began as a data sharing activity slowly permeated through strateg ic, operational and tactical levels in the two organizations. For achieving their objectives, Wal-mart and P&G together came up with a data highway that allowed the companies to share information on sales at all stores, types and time of sale, shelf information and so on. This drove down costs of both companies and increase customer satisfaction. The conceptual diagram for the data highway is shown in Figure 1.4.1. Figure 1.4.1: Channel Partnership Data Highway between Wal-mart and P&G Source: Grean, Michael; Shaw, Michael J. Supply Chain Integration through Information Sharing: Channel partnership between Wal-mart and Procter & Gamble In this approach, Wal-mart used scanners inside its retail stores to study their own business. The observations were critically analyzed. P&G used consumer buying patterns and compared it with the customer information available from market research or other activities. All the information collected and analyzed by the two companies was collected. This led to

Friday, July 26, 2019

Political Influance in Emergency Management Essay

Political Influance in Emergency Management - Essay Example Introduction It has been said that all disaster are â€Å"political†. For instance, the elder President George Bush is said to have lost the election because of perceived deficient response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992. His son, George W. Bush, suffered politically for several years as recovery operations on the Gulf Coast dragged on a pace that constituents considered unsatisfactory (Olasky, 2006). President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979 in order to response to the increasing disasters (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola, 2011). There are numerous environmental threats that United States face today. The environmental disasters include floods, tornadoes, failure of dams, or building structures. Hurricanes and bridge collapses are also considered natural environmental disasters. The federal relief under the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has been expanded under the Stafford Disaster and Emergency Assistance Act of 1974 and Hazard Mitigat ion Act of 2000. The FEMA was placed under the department of Homeland Security in 2003. Experts attribute the increase in environmental disasters to increased human encroachment and development to areas that are considered disaster prone and increased occurrence of the weather related disasters due to climate change (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola, 2011). ... Hurricane Katrina that happened in August 29 2005 is one of the disasters that experienced intense political influence (Haddow, Bullock & Coppola, 2011). The hurricane blew across southern Florida roaring in to Louisiana coast with 125 mph sustained winds thus causing a surge in sea waters and leaving 80 percent of the city flooded (Olasky, 2006). Katrina killed about 1,836 people and inflicted damages estimated at $ 125 billion. Contrary to President Clinton who utilized the FEMA to deal with a series of hurricanes, President Bush suffered major political blow due to his ability to intervene in Hurricane Katrina disaster (Olasky, 2006). Given that a large percentage of the population in New Orleans comprised of Black Americans, the slow response made the population question Presidents Bush â€Å"compassionate conservative† policies on the minorities (Olasky, 2006). President Barrack Obama also suffered politically in his early years in office due to the slow response to halti ng the oil spill in Gulf Coast. However, he recovered his politically when the oil spill was finally cleaned up (Olasky, 2006). Last week, citizens across northeastern seaboard were hit by Hurricane Sandy that left thousands homeless and destroyed thousands of businesses. The governor’s of the affected cities called for the state of emergency and President Barrack Obama granted the national disaster proclamation. Hurricane Katrina has changed the dynamics of Presidential elections in the eastern coast. For instance, New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg endorsed President Barrack Obama’s reelection to what he termed as the prompt response to Hurricane Sandy disaster and the urge to people to avoid waters and

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Erp systems and integration Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Erp systems and integration - Essay Example This problem is overcome by ERP, which encapsulates the entire spectrum of business processes, including sales management, production management, accounting, human resources, maintenance management, quality management etc. ERP uses a single database in which information from different functional domains is stored. As a result, the information needs of different entities can be met from a single location. This integrated approach can, for instance, allow the production department located in one geographical area to send financial information to the head office and the marketing information of one location can be accessed by the production department at another location, so that the market patterns can be identified and the appropriate responses can be designed. Proper implementation of ERP ensures that the management has relevant and timely information at its disposal for effective decision-making. The effectiveness of the ERP system in business can be judged by the fact that in spite of its high cost of implementation, many organizations have adopted ERP systems. Business modeling is a precursor to business process reengineering, ERP implementation etc. A business model is a diagrammatic representation of different business systems and processes, and their interconnections and interdependencies. The purpose of business modeling is to provide a general overview of the operations of a business without going into the technical details of the processes and systems. It defines the activities performed and workflow structure in a broad manner. A good business model should be comprehensible, coherent and complete. It should define clearly the different systems and subsystems of a business system. A business model is developed on the basis of organization’s goals, objectives and strategic plans. Further, the model illustrates how

Solvability Factors Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Solvability Factors - Essay Example Solvability factors, therefore, are the elements or situations that directly or indirectly affected the resolution of a crime which, as defined above, constitutes arresting and charging the offender or perpetrator. The following are solvability factors identified in the investigation of crimes such as homicide. The first group of factors involves those associated with the crime incident (Keppel & Weis, 1994). One factor is the commission of another crime. For homicide, these include robbery and breaking and entering which may aid in the investigation of the primary crime. Another factor is the time of the commission of the crime. Crimes that are perpetrated at broad daylight or at a time wherein many people are up and about will have a higher solvability due to the possibility of witnesses. Another factor under this category is the place of the crime. Crimes committed in residential areas are more likely to be solved than those committed in non-residential areas (Keppel & Weis, 1994). The second group of factors includes those associated with the vic... The third group of factors is the law enforcement organizational factors. Different strategies, regulations and other characteristics of crime detection agencies play an important role in the resolution of a crime. One factor is the amount of time that is devoted for a particular case. It is only logical that one investigator can handle a certain number of cases for a given period of time while it is quite understandable that an investigator can be more focused and be efficient when handling one case at a time (Wellford & Cronin, 1999). Another factor under this category is the number of agents or detectives for a particular division who can handle the same types of crime. When a certain investigator handling a case cannot, for any particular reason, pursue the investigation then assistance or replacement by another capable investigator is necessary (Muozos & Muller, 2001; Wellford & Cronin,1999). Another factor is the existence and efficiency of support staff that can increase the performance and rate of accomplishment of the details and processes undertaken by an investigator. Related to this is the separate function of data or evidence analysts that can help tackle the clues and questions posed by the data or evidences. Lastly, an important solvability factor related to law enforcement practice is teamwork inside the unit which roughly translates to good cooperation and communication frameworks among colleagues (Riedel & Rinehart, 1996). The fourth group of solvability factors falls under the crime scene factors. The foremost factor in this category includes the rapid or timely security of the crime scene and other places that may be

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Melify Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Melify - Essay Example In the modern world, this trend is evident where various companies keep on inventing and innovating products. For instance, in the 90s there was no such equipment as tablets, or small computers like the laptop or even iPads. However, upon the successful invention of computers, competing companies have not quenched their thirst for improvement. Another example would that of automobile where the innovation of cars is ever the center of competition for many companies. Each wants to have an upper hand over the other with the production of luxurious cars, including ones that can operate without fuel, being introduced in the market. While the ancient life may not have had cars, the point in this case is that they too were committed to self-improvement. Entertainment was, in the ancient times as it is today, an important part of the people with Leon (51) showing that the people would visit theaters. Additionally, entertainers would be there, even though their melodies may not match today’s generation. In today’s world, entertainment has been treated more of a necessity than a luxury with finding pleasure in various arenas. In the ancient times, they sought from music where dancing was evident and people danced almost whenever they could. In addition, acting was practiced then despite having limitations on the equipment and advanced machines, as is the case today. Similarly, music is this world’s main form of entertainment, albeit with a combination with other forms like movies and sports. Notwithstanding, the similarities in the ancient times, the differences could also be traced with one being lack of advanced equipment. While the ancient had similar passions as the modern ones, they had limitations in terms of equipment used. Furthermore, with the technology still a paradox to them, their gifts could not be exploited as efficiently as it done today. Criticism and rejection of religion were evident in the ancient times. Whereas this may said of the

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Human Resource Management 2 (MASTER) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3750 words

Human Resource Management 2 (MASTER) - Essay Example There are some who argue against peternity leave as being a valid HR benefit, however despite these criticisms, there is enough evidence available which illustrates that peternity benefits could be used to reduce turnover and satisfy employees’ needs both psychological and sociological. This report offers considerably more advantages to peternity leave policy implementation than disadvantages. Reward employees for accomplishing organisational objectives, as part of a performance management package, by offering additional peternity leave days-off in the event of future issues with qualifying pets. type of leave in an effort to improve retention and also enhance the public reputation of the company while also satisfying a variety of stakeholder interests. This has made peternity leave a potential topic of interest for improving the business’ human resources policies regarding employee benefits. The purpose of this report is to identify the viability of establishing a similar peternity leave policy at the company in an effort to enhance business reputation and employee retention. The impact of establishing such a new benefits policy on total organisational performance is the main focus of this report. The report consulted with a wide variety of case studies and secondary literature in the domain of human resources management and psychology to uncover whether establishing a new peternity policy would be of long-term value to the company. Virgin Mobile Australia has established its own version of peternity leave to include specific criteria for being able to take advantage of this policy. First, it is only available to employees when they are introducing a new puppy or kitten to the family household and the pet must not be older than 10 weeks (Moran, 2009). Additionally, this leave does not apply to rats, fish or other pets such as snakes and iguanas (Moran). It is apparent that Virgin Mobile Australia recognises the

Monday, July 22, 2019

Dealing with Difficult Clients and Opposing Essay Example for Free

Dealing with Difficult Clients and Opposing Essay The State Bar of California and the Office of Section Education and Meeting Services are approved State Bar of California MCLE providers. Points of view or opinions expressed in these pages are those of the speaker(s) and/or author(s). They have not been adopted or endorsed by the State Bar of California’s Board of Governors and do not constitute the official position or policy of the State Bar of California. Nothing contained herein is intended to address any specific legal inquiry, nor is it a substitute for independent legal research to original sources or obtaining separate legal advice regarding specific legal situations. Dealing with Difficult People by Steven G. Mehta There seems to be no shortage of difficult people in the practice of law. Perhaps there is something in the water, or perhaps it is the economy. But no matter where you go, difficult clients or opposing counsel seem to be popping up out of nowhere. Indeed, take the case of the hypothetical mediator who had a recent encounter with an extremely difficult party who wanted to sabotage the mediation from the very beginning. The client insulted her own attorney, wouldn’t let the other parties speak, accused her attorneys and every attorney in the world of having no heart or emotions and being liars and accused the mediator of lying about the merits of the case. To top off her venom, she had already reported her attorneys to the bar and at every turn was trying to avoid resolving the case. At one point, one of her attorneys walked out of the mediation. In short – she was the mother of all nightmare parties. Unfortunately for mo st attorneys and mediators, they have met this type of client/party at some point in their career. Therefore, it is critical to understand how to deal with such difficult clients and opposing counsel. First, this article will identify some of the different types of difficult clients. Second, it will discuss general strategies on how to deal with difficult people. Finally, it will provide specific tools on how to deal with difficult clients or opposing counsel. The following are the most common types of clients that can walk into your office. Usually, this angry client will be very hostile towards you and others. Your staff may dread dealing with this person. Sometimes, it is unclear why the person is so angry. Be assured that this person’s anger will only get worse during litigation. Moreover, some or all of that anger will spill over to you and your staff. †¢ The vengeful or zealous client. Typically a vengeful or zealous client will be vengeful about many things and not just the cause for what you are being hired. This person will usually make it known that they are bringing the fight based on principle. Many times this desire for vengeance will overcome any sense of rationality. †¢ The obsessed client. This client cannot stop thinking about the case, the injury, the wrong, and what can be done to address this problem. This client could easily call you several times a day to make sure that you are on top of the case. You could likely get too much information rather than too little. †¢ The emotionally needy client. This client is often emotionally fragile and insecure. Many times this person will be in a co-dependent relationship and is seeking to embroil you in another co-dependent relationship. This person may find it very difficult to make decisions. Mediation Offices of Steve G. Mehta 25124 Springfield Court, Ste. 250, Valencia, CA 91355 Tel: (661) 284-1818 Fax: 661 284-1811 Email: [emailprotected] Offices: Valencia Los Angeles ÂThe angry or hostile client. †¢ The dishonest or deceitful client. Often this client will not tell you all the information they know to be relevant or will tell you the wrong information. †¢ The unresponsive client. This client often wants the appearance of an attorney who is providing independent advice but in reality doesn’t want your advice. This client simply wants you to rubber stamp his or her actions. Often, this client will reject your advice because it is contrary to her own. As stated by Sheila Blackford, author of Recognizing Difficult Client Types, â€Å"Clients often come to lawyers to determine the consequences of actions they have already taken or have decided to take.† Often these clients don’t want you as a lawyer, but are â€Å"forced† by others or circumstance to hire a lawyer. Beware that just as they are unwilling to accept your advice, they may also be unwilling to pay the bill for advice they do not want. Finally, there may be a combination of these t ypes of clients. You could end up with an angry, vengeful client that is obsessed. If that is your client, turn in the other direction and run. If this ends up being your opposing counsel, then in the famous words of the Robot in Lost in Space, â€Å"Danger, Will Robinson, Danger!† Now that difficult clients have been identified, it is helpful to look at some strategies that attorneys can use to combat both difficult or nightmare clients and opposing counsel. First, start out by examining yourself. Everyone can be difficult to deal with at times. Before you can determine whether the other person is the problem, make sure that you aren’t the problem. Are you over overreacting? Are you having a bad day? Why is this person affecting you? What buttons of yours are being pushed, and why? After examining whether you may be part of the communication problem or that you have misinterpreted the comments made towards you, then you will have a better idea as to whether this person is being offensi ve or difficult or whether it is you. In examining yourself, it is important to understand that everybody has an instinctual reaction to act when attacked. This is hardwired in our brains from the stone age days where we had to either react to a threat (fight) or flee from the threat (flight). In modern days, the threat is usually not physical, yet the body still gives issues the same fight or flight reaction. People end up having an immediate need to affirmatively right a wrong or injustice against them. More likely, a person can end up wanting to immediately defend his or her actions or position. This is partially because the attack against a person is affecting his or her internal observation of self worth that person’s standing in the community or amongst his peers. Often people feel the need to show that they are correct and that the other person is wrong. This knee jerk reaction, however, can do more damage than good. Indeed, when having such a reaction, most people perceive that it makes them feel good; but shortly thereafter, they regret having said and done what they did in the heat of the moment. The strategies listed hereafter are not in chronological order; but instead are different strategies that can be employed depending on the situation. First, PRESS THE PAUSE BUTTON. In sports after a particularly difficult call by the referee the commentators will press the pause button on the action and show an instant replay at a slower pace. This tool is not just beneficial in sports. The pause button can be very powerful in helping to deal with difficult people. The length of the pause can depend on the situation. In the case of a minor issue, you might treat the matter with a small pause, giving yourself just enough time to think. Indeed, this is exactly what attorneys tell their clients in preparation for deposition. After the question is asked, wait for a brief second before answering. That pause can help to avoid making a huge blunder by saying the wrong thing. In other cases, you might need a longer pause. You could simply ask for a five-minute break or ask to use the restroom; whatever excuse you need to give to allow yourself a moment to think. Once you have hit the pause button, you can then consider the comment or action, its impact on the scheme of things, and what you might want to do in response. Take for example, the case of one mediator. In one particularly nasty mediation, when a party insulted the mediator’s integrity to its foundation, the mediator simply took a moment to pause in the mediation to let the sting of the initial insult pass. Then he asked take a five-minute break while he digested the information just conveyed. Then when he returned, he simply moved the mediation forward as if the comment had never been made. Once the party realized that she couldn’t get a reaction to her insulting comments, she was forced to stop making them. Another rule to consider is that â€Å"You don’t have to win every argument.† As noted above, often the reason a person jumps into the fray is because she wants to prove that she is right. This is difficult for lawyers because they are trained to advocate their position. However, proving that you are right with a difficult person can simply entrench that person even further; and even though you may feel that you are right, the other person will never agree. Sometimes the best response is to let it go and have the satisfaction that you know that you are right. Another important strategy is to employ ACTIVE LISTENING skills. An important sign of respect for another person is to actually listen to what that other person has to say. How many times have you been in a situation where someone has said:â€Å"You aren’t listening to me. One of the most powerful tools in addressing difficult people is using active listening skills. Active listening skills include avoiding any distractions – such as that pesky Blackberry – and really trying to under stand the other person’s positions and concerns. All too often attorneys are already working on their response while the other person speaks. clarify what you understand about the other person’s statements. Ask whether your restatement is an accurate version of what the other person feels. Sometimes, depending on the person, you might mirror some of the nonverbal cues the person displays. Studies show that by mirroring non-verbal gestures, the other person will feel more connected with you. Ask questions that elicit more information from the other person. Depending on the person, you may have to spend a considerable amount of time using active listening skills. However, at the end of such a process you might find that the difficult person is much less difficult. It is also important when dealing with difficult people that you try not to give that person an excuse to be even more difficult. As such, when you communicate your concerns or feelings try to avoid using terms that target the other person, such as â€Å"you† phrases which target the other person’s behavior. Instead, talk about your experience s using â€Å"I† phrases, such as â€Å"I was upset when I heard the comments.† This approach helps to avoid attacking the other person or accusing the other person of something. Match communication styles. Generally, people fall into three categories: Audio learners, visual learners, or Kinesthetic (or touch) learners. You can tell which style a person favors by the language she uses. Think about whether the other person is using visual language such as color, seeing, and pictures or whether the person is using audio language such as hearing, sounds, vibrations, etc. Then try to match their language by using words that relate to those styles in your responses. For example, with a visual person you might comment, â€Å"I see your position,† but with an audio person you might say, â€Å"I hear what you are saying.† If the difficult person puts you in a position where you are required to respond, ask that person what exactly he is upset about. This will help to demonstrate that you are interested in solutions rather arguing. This strategy then can allow you to incorporate active listening once the person explains to you their concern (irrational or otherwise). Finally, if after an unreasonable attack against you, consider agreeing with a small portion of the statement. This can accomplish several things. First, it can help you avoid jumping in to defend yourself and continuing the unhealthy communication. More importantly, however, it can allow you to create something in common with the angry person and may appease their irrational anger. These general strategies can be very useful in dealing with all types of difficult people. But what about the difficult client or lawyer? There are several specific strategies to work with these individuals. First, there is a saying that the best client you will ever have is the one that you don’t take. In other words, sometimes it is far better to not take a client than to take a client and have nightmares wondering if you are going to be called by the Bar or se rved with an unjustified malpractice suit. matter how lucrative, are just not worth the risk and the stress. Many times if the client is difficult as a prospective client, that person will only get worse during the representation. If you don’t have the luxury of refusing to represent a certain person, establish boundaries. You can limit your involvement to specific interactions. You can also establish boundaries for when and how many calls you might take on a particular topic. One lawyer has a written guideline for all of his clients which establishes what the lawyer will and won’t do in the legal process, including responding to calls on the weekend. Third, you can establish specific requirements for your clients in the very first meeting and before you sign the retainer. Along those same lines, one of the major frustrations for attorneys is clients that have unreasonable expectations of the result and process. By providing the clients with a detailed explanation of what they can expect, and what you expect, y ou can minimize difficult communications. This principle can also work very effectively with opposing counsel. If counsel is abusive to you or your staff, you can set down ground rules for future communications. If those ground rules are not honored, then you can limit your communications. For example, one lawyer lets the opposing counsel know that if there are any further abusive phone calls, then all further interactions will have to be in writing. Moreover, if the opposing counsel persists in his or her actions, then all writings will not be by fax or email, and will only be accepted and given in the mail. One lawyer has gone so far as to require that all conferences be videotaped. Unfortunately due to the nature of the practice of law which involves conflict scenarios, there will continue to be difficult people in the practice of law. There are many strategies for dealing with difficult people. This article has only addressed a few of them. However, armed with these strategies, it is possible to substantially decrease the number of difficult interactions and the stress related to those interactions. Research sources: Pyschology Today. Steven G. Mehta, Esq. is a full time mediator based in Los Angeles with offices in Downtown and Valencia and specializes in emotionally complex cases involving elder law, injury cases, and employment disputes. He can be reached through his website at Mediation is a tool to help people recognize their responsibility for things, to negotiate a solution and to move on with their lives. My role is to allow them to present their side, to ensure that they are heard and to help them achieve a resolution.† What, exactly, is Mehta’s magic? Understanding human dynamics. â€Å"Anyone can learn the law,† he points out. â€Å"Understanding people is where my expertise lies. There are two sides and two emotions to every story. I care about them both.† But there’s a huge chasm between understanding human dynamics and getting two frustrated, angry parties to agree. Mehta is very definitive about what it takes to bridge that gap and bring the parties together. â€Å"My ability to connect with each participant and develop trust is absolutely essential,† he says. â€Å"Then, I need to be creative about solutions. Finding a mutually satisfying settlement is as much art as it is law. Finally, I never give up. Nothing is impossible. The impossible just takes a little longer.† In the end, there is almost always an answer. When it’s over, it’s a solution the parties chose. â€Å"They feel empowered. Grateful. Relieved,† Mehta says. â€Å"Most importantly, they feel free to move on with their lives.† Now, that’s a masterful job.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Mobile Phone Industry PESTEL and SWOT

Mobile Phone Industry PESTEL and SWOT 1. INTRODUCTION This report will critically analyse the external environment of the mobile phone operators industry with the application of appropriate strategy tools including PESTEL and Michael Porters five forces models. An immediate result of this would be the identification of opportunities and threats that may arise from change in environmental factors and assessment of the attractiveness of the industry respectively. The report will also analyse critically, the strategic capability of Vodafone, also applying appropriate strategy tools resulting in the identification of key strengths and weaknesses of the firm. The aim here will be to identify and discuss the core competences the firm possesses. To aid the analysis, the report will draw on information from various sources such as: The Vodafone case study on page 557 in the main textbook by Johnson, Scholes and Whittington, Exploring Strategy 9th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2011. Other sources include Keynotes, Mintel and Magazines. 2. QUESTION ONE: PESTEL, KEY DRIVERS AND MICHAEL PORTERS 5 FORCES 2.1 PESTEL The PESTEL framework is used for the analysis and according to Johnson, Scholes and Whittington (2011), â€Å"it provides a comprehensive list of influences on the possible success or failure of particular strategies†. Discussed below are a few issues of PESTEL, please see appendix for other issues. (P)olitical/Legal factors Governments privatisation(through Ofcom) of the national telephone company, BT, compelling it to allow access to its network (via Openreach) for voice and broadband. This has helped to break down BTs monopoly thereby creating an opportunity for mobile operators to operate and at competitive rates.(case study p.558) (E)conomic factors The UK economy has still not fully recovered from the financial crisis of 2008, recovering even slower than other countries amidst huge government resuscitation efforts and even consumer spending is expected to decline by 0.6 per capita in 2011(the Telegraph, May 2011).This is a threat to the industry as, the slower the economic recovery, the slower the market growth for the mobile operators industry. Though the case study(p.558) says that personal disposal income growth as experienced between 2002 and 2007 was forecasted to resume in the future, recent developments suggest otherwise. Now the future is here, reports say household incomes are falling(NewStatesman, May  ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ­2011 and Mail Online, May 2011 ). This is a threat to the mobile industry as it means less income at the disposal of households, hence less subscribers to its services. (S)ocial factors Consumer need for converged services, such as mobile telephony, fixed line telephony, television and broadband internet, was increasing(case study p.558). This means an opportunity for mobile operators to expand their market as more people are coming on board with this convergence need which could be a result of the plunge in disposable income so people want all services in one and pay a lower lump sum for all in a bid to ration their income. A decline in UK fixed line telephone market as households were becoming â€Å"mobile-only† users. This is an opportunity for mobile operators to capture the market share of fixed line telephone operators in a bid to expand theirs. Consumer perceived prestige that comes with owning smartphones is an industry opportunity. For example, everyone wants to have an IPhone, HTC or Blackberry because they are ‘cool or for other reasons, so operators in the industry can capitalize on this and increase their market share by offering cheap deals. Consumer ‘hype for new and modern technologies as everyone wants to have the latest ‘thing in technology. This would create an opportunity for the industry to capitalize on and expand their market share. (T)echnological factors Development of new technologies, IP(Internet Protocol) for voice, data and video transmission(case study p.557). The dynamic nature of technology is posing a threat as operators may be stuck with obsolete technology thereby facing a challenge to be pro-active in order to retain market share and keep churn rates at bay. Continued upgrading of speeds over mobile networks poses a threat as operators have to keep up with the upgrading of speeds because they might loose customers to service providers who can offer better speeds. (E)nvironmental factors As a result of advancement in telecommunications technology, mobile operators have to replace network equipments and hazardous wastes(masts, cables, construction waste etc)frequently. Mobile operators are then faced with the challenge of finding energy efficient ways of recycling which may also be capital intensive, altogether posing a threat. (L)egal factors Ofcoms issuance of licences for additional mobile network operators will pose a threat to incumbent operators( as their market share is threatened) and be an opportunity to potential operators as this will lower entry barriers for them. Elaborate legal contracts can also be a threat to the industry as lots of legal obligations have to be satisfied prior to and after entry. Drawing up different phone contracts for different mobile packages can prove challenging for the operators. 2.2 KEY DRIVERS FOR CHANGE Socio-cultural issue: Consumer need for converged services: Consumer needs(which has led Virgin Media to provide multiple services such as the ‘quad play and others providing the triple play) change from time to time and even some firms will try to create the needs for the consumers thereby pushing the industry towards finding ways to satisfy these needs as the market expands. This is one of the major drivers of change for the industry. Technological issue: Development of new Technologies: The dynamic nature of technology will keep operators findings ways to stay ahead of competitors by developing new technologies such as the IP, digitising high-speed distribution of voice, data and video over multiple networks. 2.3 MICHAEL PORTERS 5 FORCES ANALYSIS a.Threat of entry: (low) The barrier of initial capital cost of entry may be daunting but the regulatory changes in the UK communications industry by Ofcom saw the issuance of licences to more mobile operators and also allowing MVNOs to lease network capacity without the capital cost of building their own hence reducing barriers to entry. This has also led to increase in the number of competitors. b. Threat of substitutes: (low/moderate) Considering the advantages of mobile connections (make calls, sending messages/data, music etc), substitutes would be the fixed line connections, skype(or VOIP) on broadband, radio airwaves, phone booths or simply go without. With the fixed line connections, Ofcom reported that the number of lines dropped from 34.9million in 2003 to 33million in 2009. Call minutes had also decreased by 15% from 167billion to 138billion over the same period with mobile minutes expected to exceed fixed line minutes in 2010(Case study p.558). A report on Broadband news also says that mobile broadband will overtake fixed line connections in 2011.(Broadband Choices 2009). It is likely that the trend will continue in this way, considering the convenience offered by mobile connections, of being able to make a call on the move. c. Competitive rivalry: (high) One of the aims of Ofcom is to ensure healthy competition among operators which saw a rapid growth in the number of competitors. The major competitors in the industry are Vodafone, Telefonica O2, Orange, 3 UK and Tmobile plus lots of MVNOs. According to the case study, wireless operator margins in the UK were up because of strong competition(p.559). d. Buyer power: (moderate) The main buyers from the industry are households(individuals) and businesses. According to case study(p.559), average churn(customer switching) rates in the market was 20% annually due to the introduction of number portability in 2007 and competitive tactics such as subsidising handsets for subscribers. Customers would switch operators for better offers or added value for their money. To counter this churn rate, most operators have found a way to switch post-paid customers to longer contracts of 18months or even 24months as at 2009. A recent 2011 report (Sim-only deals, 2011) highlights other reasons for low switching rates including providers loyalty programme and value for money SIM only deals which altogether gives them the power to make customers stay. e. Supplier power: (moderate) The main suppliers to the industry would be the handset makers and Ofcom. Major handset suppliers such as Nokia with 40% of UK handset market and Samsung,21%, supply handsets to the industry under global contracts(case study p.559). There are more suppliers today including Apple, which is another fast growing supplier as their phones are deemed trendy and a must-have because of its innovative features. Sony-Ericsson, Samsung are among the loads of others. The case study p.559 says mobile handset sales had experienced a decline in 2009 as UK wireless operators started to offer sim-only plans which allow consumers to retain their current handset and pay lower monthly tariffs. Ofcom on the other hand is the sole provider of spectrum. ATTRACTIVENESS: Based on the evidences from the five forces, the report concludes that the industry is attractive. This being that, though rivalry is high, but other threats and powers are low. Essentially incumbents or new operators can then focus only on competition and worry less about powers and other threats. 3 QUESTION TWO: STRATEGIC CAPABILITIES OF VODAFONE According to Johnson et al.(2011), Strategic capabilities are capabilities of an organization that contribute to its long-term survival or competitive advantage made up of two components: Resources, which are assets the company has or can call upon and Competenceswhich are ways in which those assets are used or deployed effectively. 3.1 RESOURCES AND COMPETENCES Human Resources Vodafone has had a history of experienced CEOs including Arun Sarin(resource), who was skilled in achieving growth in developing markets(competence/strength). Also, Gary Laurence(resource), head of Vodafone UK, appointed CEO in September 2008 was known for his ability to identify strategic options(competence/strength) and the current CEO, Vittorio Colao(resource) who succeeded Arun in 2008 is known for strong reputation as cost cutter.(competence/strength). (Case study page 563) Vodafones partnership with BT(resource) hosting BTs MVNO, allowed it to provide services to corporations.(competence/strength). It started a joint venture with O2(resources) which enabled it to extend its fixed-line network.(competence/strength). Vodafone, in its target of business travelers with passport services(resources), was able to offer home country voice rates while roaming in Europe and mobile data services for  £10 a day(competence/strength).(case study page 563) Financial Resources Financial Performance of Vodafone: (a) ROCE(Return on Capital Employed): measures the returns made from all forms of resources or capital employed in the business. Vodafones resources are the capital employed and its competence is shown in the amount of returns generated from utilization these capital. Vodafones ROCE plunged by 3.73% to give a ROCE in 2010 of 19.85. This may be slightly better than industry average but it shows a weakness to efficiently utilise resources to yield maximum profits. Vodafone 2010 2009 Industry ROCE 19.85 20.59 19.48 Source. Morning Star Stock Report. (b) Current ratio:   measures a companys efficiency at meeting its short term obligations. A good ratio would be for current liabilities to be covered at least once but Vodafones current assets(resources) can barely cover 50% of its liabilities in 2010 though it improved from previous year. On the whole, this is a weakness as the company is low on liquidity and incurring too much liabilities in terms of its short term borrowings. Vodafone Plc 2010 2009 Industry Current Ratio 0.50:1 0.47:1 Source: Morning Star Stock Report. (c) Net Gearing: shows the proportion of debt within a companys overall capital. The table below shows that Vodafones net gearing has declined from 40.67% in 2009 to 37.76% in 2010. Overall for the industry borrowing is about 40% of total capital. The reduction therefore for Vodafone is good as its means a reduction in finance costs too. Vodafone 2010 2009 Industry Net Gearing ratio 37.76% 40.67% 39.40% Source: Morning Star Stock Report. (d) Interest cover: explains Vodafones ability to service its debt. From the table below, it appears Vodafone makes enough profits to service it finance costs as it has been able to increase its interest cover to 7.51times in 2010 from 7.03times in 2009. This may not be a core competence but it is a strength for Vodafone. Vodafone 2010 2009 Interest cover 7.51 times 7.03 times Source: Morning Star Stock Report. Physical Resources Vodafone makes heavy investments in the marketing of its Product brands (competence/strength) which includes, landline solutions and mobile telephony, mobile broadband and secure employee remote access(resources), making them well known.(Vodafone website). It invests also in the marketing (competence/strength) of 3G dongles or cards(resources) for internet connection giving it the largest share of 3G subscribers. Vodafone used wholesale services to distribute its fixed voice and broadband (resources) but its prices were too high giving it only a few customers(weakness). Another of its products is the Vodafone-at-home(resources), with which it competed with fixed line providers by offering fixed line prices when customers call from within or near their home(competence/strength). Core Competences For the sake of this report, the core competences identified are Vodafones CEOs. They have been exceptional with what they bring to the table and how their expertise has been able to transform the company. Vodafone UK CEO, Gary Laurence has been formidable in terms of identifying strategic options available to the company such as successful alliances and joint venture with likes of BT and O2. Heavy investment in the marketing of its products giving it largest share of 3G subscribers is another core competence. 3.2 VODAFONE VALUE CHAIN Primary Activities Inbound logistics: Vodafone possesses its own network equipments, backbones and infrastructure to provide various communication services, and purchasing of handsets (Annual Reports 2010, p.21). Now, its in a network sharing agreement (sharing masts, sites and towers) with O2 covering the UK and 4 European countries,.(case study page 559, Guardian March 2009)., Another inbound logistic is the ownership of spectrum. Spectrum is of particular importance to the mobile phone and mobile broadband industry, which relies on it to carry information between customers handsets and mobile masts. Vodafone spectrum is 1800MHz. (Ofcom report, Feb 2011). Operations: All Vodafone operations are based on in-house infrastructure. Vodafones operations is dependent on its people, infrastructure and financial resources. Its logistics operations (which provides a variety of value-added services), evolves from a single, purpose built site in West Midlands.( Out-bound logistics: Vodafone has consumer on-line purchasing systems in place that allow customers to purchase its services directly(Vodafone website). It also has its own billing system. Marketing and Sales: Vodafone has several own branded and other retail chains that it uses in distribution. According to the case   study(page 563), Vodafone invests a lot in marketing in all markets whilst promoting its brand and also sponsors Formula 1 and England cricket sports. Services: Its all encompassing website enables customer online ordering and feedback monitoring.(source).Vodafone has customer services helpline that offer after sales  services and it also offers services to MVNOs such as Lebara mobile, Asda mobile, Talk mobile(Carphone Warehouse) and BT mobile(, Support Activities Infrastructure: Vodafones mode of expansion was the formation of a joint venture with O2(case study p.559) to manage its mobile network and share network covering 4 European countries and the UK. It also leases BTs fixed line services and hosts BTs MVNO.(case study p.562) Human Resource Management: Vodafone depends on its employees for the quality of its services to customers. It ensures an inclusive working environment and encourages innovation, ambition and pro-activeness. Vodafone encourages enthusiasm, talent and commitment in its employees in order to build and maintain its success and stay competitive.(Vodafone, Our people). Technology and Development: Vodafone owns internet portals which enables on-line ordering. Also, continuous RD helps the company to incubate and deliver innovation to the business. (Annual Report, 2010. p.20) Procurement: Vodafone, like other networks, purchases branded handsets from suppliers. Vodafone holds several training courses for its procurement team for efficient management of supplier performance. CONCLUSION SWOT MATRIX STRENGTHS 1. Experienced CEOs(UK CEO, Gary Laurence). 2. Partnership with BT and O2. 3.Offering home country voice rates abroad. 4.Heavy investment in marketing. 5.Vodafone at home 6. Good Interest Cover 7. Reduced borrowing WEAKNESSES 1.Low level of liquidity 2.Inability to increase ROCE 3.High prices and inefficient channel of distribution for fixed voice and broadband. OPPORTUNITIES 1. Governments privatization of Ofcom. 2. Consumer need for converged services. 3. Decline in Fixed line telephone market 4. 2012 Olympics 5. Consumer demand for smart phones 6. Consumer hype for modern technology 7. Ofcom issuance of entry license THREATS 1.Slow economic recovery from recession 2.Decline in disposable income 3.Immigration cap 4.Health issues in areas of mobile masts. 5.Customer switching rates. 6.Development of new technologies 7.Capital intensive recycling 8.Ofcoms issuance of entry license 9.Elaborate legal contarcts From all facts assessed in the report and also information from the case study and Vodafone accounts, it is indeed evident that Vodafone is struggling to develop a total communications strategy to enable it to secure leadership   in the rapidly growing market for high speed internet services in its UK home market due to the fact that it actually cannot improve its core activities in order to gain competitive advantage.

Bilayer Organic Solar Cell in MATLAB

Bilayer Organic Solar Cell in MATLAB Chapter 3 Modelling and Simulation 3.1 Introduction This thesis is based on simulation of design characteristic of bilayer organic solar cell in MATLAB so it is very essential to be familiar with modelling and simulation. This chapter explains about modelling and simulation, characteristics of simulation, mathematical modelling (analytical and numerical both) and its properties, electrical modelling, work done in the field of modelling and simulation of OSC and finally small introduction of MATLAB which shows it’s features because of which this simulation work is in MATLAB. 3.2 Modelling and Simulation Modelling and simulation [1-4] is obtaining related data about how something will act without really trying it in real life. MS is using models either statically or over time, to build up data as a basis for making technical decisions. The terms modelling and simulation are often used interchangeably. Simulation skill is the tool set of engineers of each and every application domains and included in the knowledge body of engineering management. Modelling and simulation is a regulation on its own. With the addition of dynamic factor, simulation systems develop their functionality and allow to calculate predictions, estimates, optimization and what-if analyses. The meaningful abstraction of reality, follow-on in the proper necessity of a conceptualization and fundamental assumptions and constraints, is known as modelling. Simulation is execution of a model over time. Conceptualization is targeted by modelling, means modelling belongs to abstraction level and implementation is targeted by simulation, means simulation belongs to implementation level. Conceptualization (modelling) and implementation (simulation)– are the two activities that are jointly dependent, but can nevertheless be conducted by separate individuals. Modelling and simulation has helped to reduce expenses, enhance the feature of products and systems, and document. 3.2.1 Features of Simulation Interest in simulation applications are increasing gradually because of the following reasons- Use of simulation is cheaper and safer as compared to conduction of experiment. As compared to the conventional experiments, simulations can be more realistic because it permits free formation of surroundings parameters that are obtained in the active application area of the final product. As compared to real time, execution of simulation is faster because of this quality it can be used in if-then-else analysis of unlike alternatives, in particular when the essential information to initialize the simulation can simply be founded from functioning data. Tool box of conventional decision support system is being added a decision support simulation system with the use of simulation. Set up of a coherent synthetic environment is permitted by simulation which allows addition of simulated systems in the premature analysis phase through mixed virtual systems with virtual check surrounding to first prototypical elements for concluded system. If managed perfectly, the surrounding can be migrated from the growth and test domain to the domain of training and learning in resulting life cycle phases for the systems. 3.2.2 Steps for Modelling For modelling four basic steps are as follows †¢ Step 1: Monitor – In the first step conceptual model of ground profile and job objectives are developed. †¢ Step 2: Measure – In the second step theoretical model is developed which is used to explain the main processes running in the problem. †¢ Step 3: Describe – In the third step mathematical explanation of these processes are developed and to get a perfect solution verification is also done. †¢ Step 4: Verify – In the fourth step under the light of experimental physical reality, results of mathematical expression is interpretated. Confirm the suggestion, get additional measurements, enhance the complexity or precision of the mathematical result, or modify your conceptual understanding until you have complete understanding of the physical actuality. 3.3 Mathematical Modelling Fig 3.1, shows the simplest explanation of modelling – the method through which we can take out a complex physical actuality from a suitable mathematical reality on which designing of system is based. Development of suitable mathematical expression is done in numerical modelling. Mathematical modelling is a group of mathematical expressions that show the variation of a system from one state to another state (differential equations) and dependence of one variable to the other variable (state equations). The use of mathematical words to describe the performance of a system is mathematical modelling. Performance of photovoltaic system [5-7] is also illustrated by mathematical modelling. Number of different parameters (like – series and shunt resistance, ideality factor, reverse saturation current, open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, photo-generated current, efficiency) of photovoltaic system can be calculated by mathematical modelling. Fig. 3.1: Simple definition of modelling. 3.3.1 Properties of Mathematical Modelling We prefer mathematical modelling because of the following reasons With the help of mathematical model we can understand and investigate the meaning of equations and useful relations. It becomes very simple to make a educational environment in which preliminary person can be interactively occupied in guided inquiry and hands on actions with the help of mathematical modelling software (like – Stella II, Excel, online JAVA, MATLAB). Mathematical model is build up after the development of conceptual model of physical system. It is used to calculate approximately the quantitative presentation of the system. In order to spot a model’s strengths and weaknesses, quantitative outcomes obtained from mathematical modelling can be compared with observational information. The most important element of the resultant â€Å"complete model† of a system is mathematical model. Complete model is an assembly of theoretical, physical, numerical, visualization and statistical sub-models. 3.4 Types of Mathematical Modelling These can also be divided into either numerical models and analytical models. 3.4.1 Numerical Modelling – It is one of the type of mathematical modelling in which numerical time stepping method is used to obtain model response over time. Results are presented in the form of graph or table. In this thesis numerical modelling is used to analysis the design characteristic of Bilayer Organics Solar Cell. 3.4.2 Analytical Modelling – Modelling having a closed form results is called analytical modelling. In closed form results, mathematical analytic functions are used to present the response to the equations that describe variation in a system. 3.5 Electrical Modelling In this section, the electrical model for bilayer organic solar cell is described. One of the important characteristics of organic materials is their extremely small mobility, which makes modelling of their electrical properties difficult. Another problem in the electrical modelling of organic thin film devices (e. g. planar organic solar cells) was the lack of unique and precise electrical parameters for very thin layers of materials and occasionally lack of any information. Here with the aid of a self consistent loop between the Poisson equation and continuity equations for electrons and holes, the I-V curve of the device is calculated. It is assumed that the electrical current is due to the drift-diffusion transport of carrier. Consequently, in order to model the drift diffusion equations, a self consistent loop between the solutions of Poissons equation and two separate continuity equations for electrons and holes is needed. The design of the loop should be in a way such that the solution of each equation can be used as the initial conditions for the others, to generate a self correcting mechanism. The model that is used is based on the following assumptions: The generated excitons are separated right after absorption and the numbers of the generated electron-hole pairs are directly imported into the continuity equations as the generation rate . The transport properties of the organic materials can be totally modelled by mobility, DOS, bimolecular recombination term and doping levels. The connections between different layers follow the physical rules of hetero-junction connections between conventional semiconductors interfaces. The other two equations, which are solved in a closed loop with the mentioned Poisson equation, are two separate continuity equations one for the electrons and one for the holes. The flowchart of the electrical model using the mentioned equations is shown in Fig. 3.2. Fig. 3.2 : Flowchart of electrical model. 3.6 Work Done in Modelling and Simulation of OSC Pettersson et al (1999)[8] have reported a model based on the experimental short circuit light generated current action spectrum of poly(3-(4’-(1†,4†,7†-trioxaoctyl)phenyl)thiophene) (PEOPT)/C60 fullerene hetero-junction photovoltaic devices. This modelling was completely based on the assumption that generation process of photocurrent is the result of creation, diffusion and dissociation of excitons. Using complex refractive indices and layer thickness, internal optical electric field was computed. We got values for exciton diffusion length of 4.7 and 7.7 nm for PEOPT C60 respectively. Computed photocurrent and electric field distribution were used to study the effect of geometrical architecture with respect to the efficiency of device. Cheknane et al (2007)[9] has reported a photovoltaic cell in which photo-active layer of MDMO-PPV and PCBM material is sandwiched between ITO and Al electrodes, there is an additional interfacial layer of PEDOT/PSS on the top of ITO. Comparision between V-I characteristics of device with and without extra interfacial layer is done and modelled by electrical equivalent circuit. Simulation results show that V-I characteristics of bulk hetero-junction solar cell is affected by extra interfacial layer of PEDOT/PSS. Hwang et al (2007)[10] has reported drift-diffusion time dependent model of OSC based on blends of P3HT and red polyfluorene copolymer. In this model electron trapping and field dependent charge separation is used to investigate the device physics. This model is used to reproduce practical light-generated current transients observed in response to variable intensity step function excited light. Vervisch et al (2011)[11] has reported OSCs simulation using finite element method. Using finite difference time domain process, optical modelling is done and electrical characteristics is obtained by solving Poisson’s and continuity equations. Simulation results show the effect of physical parameters like exciton lifetime on OSC performance. Casalegno et al (2013)[12] has reported numerical approaches that give valuable information of microscopic processes underlying generation of photo-current in OSC. Here 3D master equation approach is used in which equations explaining particle dynamics rely on mean field guess and result is obtained numerically. Reliability of this method is tested against Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation method. V-I curve shows that the result of this method is very close to the exact result. Because of the adoption of mean field approximation for electrostatic interactions, we get biggest deviation in current densities. Strong energy disorder can also affect response quality. Simulation results show that master equation approach is faster than Kinetic Monte Carlo approach. Foster et al (2013)[13] presented a drift-diffusion model to obtain V-I curves and equivalent circuit parameters of bilayer organic solar cell. Minority carrier densities are neglected and final equations are solved with internal boundary condition on material interface and ohmic boundary condition on contacts. From the solution of this model V-I curves are calculated. 3.7 Introduction to MATLAB MATLAB [13] is a high performance language for technical computing. It integrates calculation, visualization and programming in a simple to use surroundings where troubles and solutions are presented in well-known mathematical notation. MATLAB can solve technical computing troubles faster than conventional programming language (like – Forton, C, C++). Typical uses include – Financial modeling and investigation Computational biology Math and computation algorithm development Data acquisition modeling Simulation and prototyping data study Exploration and visualization Graphics application development for scientific and engineering field Graphical user interface building Matrix laboratory is the full form of MATLAB. Basic data element in MATLAB is an array which does not need dimensioning. With the help of MATLAB number of technical computing troubles mainly those with vector and matrix formulations can be solved in a fraction of time. Basically it was written to give simple access to matrix software. For advance science, mathematics, engineering field and high productivity industrial research, progress and study MATLAB is very important instruction tool. Comprehensive collection of MATLAB functions are toolbox. Toolboxes of MATLAB permit us to study and apply specific technology. Toolboxes are available in different areas like – neural network, communication, signal processing, fuzzy logic, simulation, control system and many others. Differential equations are solved very easily in MATLAB [14-17]. We can also do modeling and simulation of solar cell using MATLAB [18,19]. 3.8 Conclusions This chapter explains about modelling and simulation. Presentation of physical configuration or activities of device by conceptual mathematical model that approximates this behavior, is called modeling. Model may either be closed form equation or arrangement of simultaneous equations that are numerically solved. Analytical and numerical both type of analysis can be used in modeling. Simulation is process of imitating the physical system behavior by considering the characteristic of an analogous but different system without resorting direct practical experimentation. For simulation we are using MATLAB which is a high performance technical computing language. We get that MATLAB integrates calculation, programming and visualization in a simple to use surroundings where mathematical expressions are used to express troubles and solutions. Because of all these qualities of MATLAB a system of number of numerical equations used for electrical modelling of bilayer organic solar cell are solved easily and in better way as compared to other programming languages. 3.9 References [1] B. P. Zeigler, Wiley, New York, (1976). [2] A. M. Law and W.D. Kelton, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill,  New York, (1991). [3] F. Haddix, Paper 01F-SIW-098, Proceedings of the Simulation Interoperability Workshop, Fall (2001). [4] A. Crespo-Mà ¡rquez, R. R. Usano and R. D. Aznar, Proceedings of International System Dynamics Conference, Cancun, Mexico, The System Dynamics Society, (1993), 58. [5] J. S. Kumari and C. S. Babu, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering (IJECE), 2(1), (2012), 26-34. [6] P. Sudeepika, G.Md. G. Khan, International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical,Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, 3(3), (2014), 7823-7829. [7] M. Abdulkadir, A. S. Samosir, A. H. M. Yatim, International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive System (IJPEDS), 3(2), (2013), 185-192. [7] L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, and O. Ingana, Journal of Applied Physics, 86, (1999), 487-496. [8] A. Cheknane, T. Aernouts, M. M. Boudia, ICRESD-07, (2007), 83 – 90. [9] I. Hwang, C. R. M. Neill, and N. C. Greenham, Journal of Applied Physics, 106, (2009), 094506:1-10. [10] W. Vervisch, S. Biondo, G. Rivià ¨re, D. Duchà ©, L. Escoubas, P. Torchio, J. J. Simon, and J. L. Rouzo, Applied Physics Letters, 98, (2011), 253306:1-3. [11] M. Casalegno, A. Bernardi, G. Raos, J. Chem. Phys., 139(2), (2013). [12] J. M. Foster, J. Kirkpatrick, and G. Richardson, Journal of Applied Physics, 114, (2013), 104501:1-15. [13] A. Knight, CRC Press LLC, (2000). [14] R. K. Maddalli , Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering, 3(3), (2012), 406-10. [15] Z. M. Kazimovich and S. Guvercin, International Journal of Computer Applications, 41(8), (2012), 1-5. [16] A. B. Kisabo, A. C. Osheku, A. M. Adetoro, A. Lanre and A. Funmilayo, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 3(8), (2012), 1-7. [17] V. Nehra, I.J. Intelligent Systems and Applications, 05, (2014), 1-24. [18] S. Nema, R. K. Nema, and G. Agnihotri, International Journal of Energy and Environment, 1(3), (2010), 487500. [19] M. Edouard, D. Njomo, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3(9), (2013), 24-32.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Servant Leadership Would Make the World a Better Place :: Servant Leadership

In such a corrupt world, there is the need for laws and enforcement of those laws. It is expected that those put in positions to keep those safe, such as politicians, police officers, and firefighters, are actually putting others before themselves, but this is not always the case. Unfortunately, there are many in these types of positions who hold their positions because of gaining income (which is of course of importance) but do not have a strong passion for people. This brings to the case the theory of servant leadership. Northouse (2013) defines servant leadership as emphasizing that leaders be attentive to the concerns of their followers, empathize with them, and nurture them. Those who are truly servant leaders have the best interest of their followers at heart and are able to help them and lift them up, selflessly. Because politicians, police officers, and firefighters are all considered community and national leaders of our country, it is important that those are are put into these positions have characteristics of being a servant leader. Although some may argue that we may not be â€Å"followers† that does not take away from the leadership impact that they have. Although Northouse (2013) lists 10 characteristics of servant leadership (p. 221), 5 that I feel are of the most important for political and community leaders are stewardship, commitment to the growth of people, listening, empathy, and awareness. Collectively, all of these make the leader aware of their positions, aware of their impact, and ready to commit to the growth of those they are called to lead. In a perfect world, instead of politicians having hidden agendas, there only agenda would be the one they were voted into: leading others and having a positive impact on our communities, states, and country as a whole.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Knowledge, Experience, and Morality in The Sufi Masters’ parable The Tale of the Sands :: essays research papers

The knowledge and experience that is gained through everyday life forms the basis of wisdom. Wisdom can be attained through numerous ways. For example, it can be created from performing a personal mistake. Lessons can be learned from those mistakes, which in turn, form knowledge and experience. The Sufi Masters’ parable â€Å"The Tale of the Sands† illustrates how knowledge can be attained from other people. The Stream of Life gains knowledge, experience, and morality from passing through the desert to its destiny. Knowledge is one of the many building blocks of wisdom. For example, the sand gives information to the Stream of Life by telling it to â€Å"be absorbed by the wind† (930). The sand is providing advice to the stream on how to solve its predicament. Knowledge is being passed from the sand to the stream. The stream is now gaining more knowledge, which builds upon its growing wisdom. Furthermore, the sand advises the stream to â€Å"let the wind carry you over the desert and towards your destination† (930). The stream is expanding its own knowledge even more with the help of a supplementary set of instructions from the sand. The stream is constantly getting wiser after comprehending every piece of knowledge that has been given to it. Understanding builds upon insight of the individual that comprehends the actual knowledge. Experience is an elemental unit of wisdom. For example, the Stream of Life runs through â€Å"the far-off mountains†¦and through the countryside† (929). The stream gains experience by going through the mountains and countryside. The wisdom of the stream is constantly growing from overcoming the obstacles of crossing the mountains and countryside. Moreover, the stream â€Å"raised his vapor into the welcoming arms of the wind†¦ which gently carried it over the desert† (930). The stream is now conquering another obstacle in its path to its destination. It is gaining the experience of having the wind deliver it over the desert. Another essential part of wisdom is experience. The morality of the situation is also a key part of wisdom, morality leads to wisdom overtime. For example, the Stream of Life asks itself, â€Å" ‘how do I know if this is right’?† (930). The stream is questioning itself that if letting the wind carry it over is the right thing to do. It is not sure if the action that is about take place is moral. Furthermore, the sand gives moral thought before it â€Å"extends the riverside all the way to the mountain† (930). Knowledge, Experience, and Morality in The Sufi Masters’ parable The Tale of the Sands :: essays research papers The knowledge and experience that is gained through everyday life forms the basis of wisdom. Wisdom can be attained through numerous ways. For example, it can be created from performing a personal mistake. Lessons can be learned from those mistakes, which in turn, form knowledge and experience. The Sufi Masters’ parable â€Å"The Tale of the Sands† illustrates how knowledge can be attained from other people. The Stream of Life gains knowledge, experience, and morality from passing through the desert to its destiny. Knowledge is one of the many building blocks of wisdom. For example, the sand gives information to the Stream of Life by telling it to â€Å"be absorbed by the wind† (930). The sand is providing advice to the stream on how to solve its predicament. Knowledge is being passed from the sand to the stream. The stream is now gaining more knowledge, which builds upon its growing wisdom. Furthermore, the sand advises the stream to â€Å"let the wind carry you over the desert and towards your destination† (930). The stream is expanding its own knowledge even more with the help of a supplementary set of instructions from the sand. The stream is constantly getting wiser after comprehending every piece of knowledge that has been given to it. Understanding builds upon insight of the individual that comprehends the actual knowledge. Experience is an elemental unit of wisdom. For example, the Stream of Life runs through â€Å"the far-off mountains†¦and through the countryside† (929). The stream gains experience by going through the mountains and countryside. The wisdom of the stream is constantly growing from overcoming the obstacles of crossing the mountains and countryside. Moreover, the stream â€Å"raised his vapor into the welcoming arms of the wind†¦ which gently carried it over the desert† (930). The stream is now conquering another obstacle in its path to its destination. It is gaining the experience of having the wind deliver it over the desert. Another essential part of wisdom is experience. The morality of the situation is also a key part of wisdom, morality leads to wisdom overtime. For example, the Stream of Life asks itself, â€Å" ‘how do I know if this is right’?† (930). The stream is questioning itself that if letting the wind carry it over is the right thing to do. It is not sure if the action that is about take place is moral. Furthermore, the sand gives moral thought before it â€Å"extends the riverside all the way to the mountain† (930).

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Mexican-Americans Fight for Equality in America Essay example -- Race

Mexican-Americans' Fight for Equality in America The United States has always been thought of as the the land of opportunity. Why is it that for years Mexican-Americans have been mistreated and discriminated against? There are millions of people that live in the US that are of Mexican descent. Throughout the Mexican-American history they have faced constant struggles to be recognized as equal citizens. The white man drove them from their own homes when they first settled in America. The Anglo settlers did not hold much if any respect for the Mexicans. The fight for their civil rights has been going on since the 1800s. It wasn't until the 1960s when the Chicanos were formed that affirmative action began to take place. The Americans settled all over the United States and in the 1820s began showing interest in the West because of trade with Asia. Certain leaders were sent out on missions' to "help" better the lives of the Indians and Mexicans. When the white settlers first came to West they viewed the Indians and Mexicans as savages. They did not think of them as human because their lifestyle was unsuitable, or rather different then their own. The only way that they could tolerate them was to try and change their way of living. They attempted to convert them into the Christian religion, to change the way they ate, what they ate, how they ate it, the way they dressed, teach them English, etc. "The object of the missions is to convert as many of the wild Indians as possible, and to train them up within the walls of the establishment in the exercise of a good life, and of some trade, so that they may be able to provide for themselves and become useful members of civilized society."1 The Mexicans did not like nor we... ...ecause the white people treated the Mexicans so unfairly the Mexicans united against them and formed a unity that has lasted until today. In Michelle's paper she recaps the history of Mexicans in the United States that was not completely dealt with in either the website or the movie. Michelle points out that the Latin@s history is essential to understanding the Mexicans experience. She also wrote of the Mexican's el movemiento and how the website and movie brought about different accounts of this momentous event. In reading different papers about the Mexican-Amercican experience it expanded not only my knowledge but my opinion too. Nikki and Michelle brought up some interesting points, ideas, and thoughts on the Mexican's life in the United States. Through all my research on mexican's I have gained a better understanding of the Mexican's struggle.

Simulation Experimentation

7.5 Simulation Experiment Once the base ‘push’ and ‘pull’ theoretical accounts were validated and verified, the following measure was to make up one's mind on patterns that could be included in the simulation survey and their degree scene. So, the simulation experimentation was carried in two phases. 7.5.1 Initial Experiment The initial experimentation was used to make up one's mind the degree of alterations to be made and for confirmation of patterns. Along with the present position, following fluctuations were considered for initial experimentation.Layout alteration: layout alteration with alterations in machine location and cell layoutSetup clip: 25 % less and 50 % lessAverage clip to mend ( MTTR ) : 25 % less, 50 % less and 25 % morePull Model: 100 % production as per agenda and no FGI available, 100 % production as per agenda and existent FGIRejection: 25 % less and 50 % lessLoad and unload clip: 25 % less and 50 % less.Table 7.6 Consequences of mated T-test for past informations cogency of ‘push’ type simulation theoretical accountJ948336256– 0.370.0872.04477550230.1780.6970.408– 405823570.7760.004– 4.555J8109226631.0850.3191.08574911380.790.1321.741– 34315860.3050.588-0.573J7-159022040.1220.105-1.90914512210.6330.7640.31417352696-0.0330.141.702J6135539420.0 280.3980.914024530.9470.0572.347-9534124-0.0740.563-0.612J5199056750.4860.3890.928222221120.5990.0322.78323257940.570.9190.106J4114659710.0890.630.508158717140.6590.052.4494417322-0.50.8790.159J3939713869-0.1040.1231.793-18772610.6130.948-0.068-9584113260.2230.066-2.239J2122543590.9650.4850.7442955120100.6850.5390.6511730104570.7060.6770.438J1208776080.9760.4950.7262650224310.740.7650.313563187730.7630.9390.079Stat. ParameterMeanStd. Dev.Correlationp-valuet-valueMeanStd. Dev.Correlationp-valuet-valueMeanStd. Dev.Correlationp-valuet-valueComparison betweenPlanned- ActualPlanned- ‘push’ theoretical accountActual- ‘push’ theoretical accountProduction sequence: high to low volume and low to high volumeHandiness: 25 % less and 25 % moreRaw Material Schedule: current natural stuff procurance program, agenda bringings after 5 yearss, with and without opening RMI, 5 % extra stuff procurance, with current bringing public presentation, 100 % bringing measure and brin ging public presentation7.5.1.1 Layout Alterations The layout to be used for the JIT system should hold maximal visibleness, lower limit walking, minimal stuff handling, facilitates monitoring of work come ining and go forthing the cell and workers can handily collaborate to smooth flow and address jobs. Schonberger ( 1982 ) , Korgaonker ( 2005 ) and other research workers have stressed on the usage of streamlined U shaped layout and formation of fabricating cells based on group engineering ( GT ) attack. The current layout of the imperativeness machine store is a combination of U-shaped and L-shaped layout. The country of the imperativeness store is 625 m2including the country required for imperativeness machines, rework country, racks for hive awaying the dies and tooling which is non excessively large for the stuff and tool motion. The P9 machine was the lone machine outside the close U-type. The operator and the stuff have to be placed in the gangway. So, consequently the machine P9 was shifted in topographic point of P6, which i s non being used. The infinite restraint besides does non let the change of current layout into the complete U type layout. The layout was analyzed to verify the locations of the machines within the given layout. From-To chart showed that the current layout produces minimal backtracking. In order to use group engineering ( GT ) attack, two types of cells were formed. As shown in Table 7.7, two cells were formed based on fabrication properties and by switching some of the operations performed on machines P5, P7 and P8. The measure of constituents J5 and J8 is really less as compared to occupation J1, J2 and J3. So, it would non be advisable to save the machines P5, P7 and P8 entirely for these two occupations. So, it could be considered that the imperativeness store with 11 machines formed one cell. In another attack, the simulation theoretical account was developed in which the machines with similar capacities were grouped together to organize the cell as shown in Table 7.8. The first bin of a batch selects the first available imperativeness in the cell assigned to that operation. If none of the imperativenesss are available, the bins wait until a imperativeness is available. After a imperativeness has been selected, all bins in that batch will be routed to the selected imperativeness for that peculiar operation. The production public presentation of this layout was compared with the base ‘push’ theoretical account stand foring current scenario. It was observed that monthly production of J2, J3 and J5 is drastically reduced while the addition in the production of J1, J8 and J9 is really fringy. Similarly, lead clip additions drastically and machine use besides reduces. Therefore, both the attacks have shown negative tendencies of steps. So, it was decided to follow the current layout as the best suited option. Table 7.7 Cell formation based on fabrication propertiesCell No.Press machines in the cellJobs manufactured in the cell11, 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12 7 machines1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9 7 occupations24, 5, 7, 10 4 machines5, 8 2 occupations.Table 7.8 Cell formation based on machine capacityCell No.Press machines in the cellCapacity14, 540 Short ton2780 Short ton33100 Short ton42, 8, 9110 Short ton51, 10, 11, 12160 Short ton7.5.1.2 Line Balancing Line reconciliation is a particular job for assorted type of production ( Schonberger, 1982 ) . The imperativeness store under consideration was analyzed for available and needed figure of shots. The analysis is presented in Table 7.9 for the month of January. It can be observed that the shots remain unutilized or balanced. The analysis for all the seven months showed similar tendencies except for the month of February and March. For the intent of computations, the overall minimal shots available were considered which are well lower than available for high volume occupations like J1 and J2. So, line reconciliation was besides non a concern for the imperativeness store. Table 7.9 Capacity analysis for the month of JanuaryImperativenessJobs utilizing imperativeness and corresponding measureMin. CapacityMin. parts / twenty-four hoursRequired shotsBalance shotsOccupationQtyOccupationQtyOccupationQtyOccupationQtyP1J21128J3245250350013732127P2J12246J2112825035003374126P3J21128J3245J4316J772333466217612901P4J8157J815730342423143928P5J3245J3245J540840056008984702P7J4316J5408J815730342428813361P8J12246J21128J772385539034461944P9J12246J4316J9101J9101286400427641240P10J5408J9101J910125035006102890P11J21128J3245J9101J9101250350015751925P12J21128J6273J62732002800167411267.5.1.3 Production Sequence The constituents to be produced by imperativeness store includes some high volume occupations such as J1, J2, and J3 and some low volume occupations such as J7, J8 and J9. The sequence in which these occupations are scheduled affects the public presentation of imperativeness store. The simulation was carried out by scheduling the production from high to low ( on the footing of production volume ) and from low to high. The consequences indicated that in both the instances production lessenings and WIP increases drastically. So, the current attack of assorted type sequencing was maintained for ‘push’ and ‘pull’ theoretical accounts. Raw Material Procurement Schedule In the initial experimentation of ‘push’ type simulation theoretical account, some cases of ‘stock out’ state of affairss were observed. If the natural stuff measure in the shop was less than the twenty-four hours ‘s demand, the theoretical account calculated the figure of full bins that could be produced utilizing the bing natural stuff in the shop. The balance was added to the following twenty-four hours ‘s order. Current procurance of natural stuff is in immense tonss bring forthing higher RMI.The public presentation of the sellers in footings of adhering to the measure and clip of bringing is really good. Average ‘On clip delivery’ public presentation is 99.24 % and the ‘right quantity’ public presentation is 95.50 % . Even though, the seller public presentation is moderately good, the works experienced arrests due to ‘non-availability of material’ on the one manus and high stock list of natural stuff on the other. So, the new procurance agenda was developed to avoid the ‘stock out’ state of affairs with minimal possible natural stuff stock list. Assorted options such as agenda bringings after 5 yearss with and without opening RMI were considered. Still, some occasions of ‘stock out’ were observed. So, 5 % extra stuff was added to the procurance measure in order to counterbalance for possible rejections. Opening natural stuff stock list at the beginning of the simulation was assumed. The bringing public presentation in footings of quality and bringing timing was modeled as per paradigm execution. Setup Time Setup clip decrease is the most of import technique that enables JIT refillings. The set-up clip is the elapsed clip from when the last portion of the current tally is completed until the work centre starts running the first good piece of the following tally. Entire setup clip consists of the clip required readying, mounting and unhorsing, focus oning, dimensioning and puting measure, and test tallies and accommodations. For the imperativeness store under consideration, the mean set-up clip is 14.4 proceedingss, the maximal being 30 proceedingss and the lower limit is 10 proceedingss. Along with the other parametric quantities related to the apparatus procedure, apparatus clip depends on the tunnage capacity of the imperativeness and weight of the dies. Some larger machines like 3,000 dozenss with 35 ton dies, the universe criterion for set-up is 10 proceedingss, whereas Toyata was able to accomplish the set-up for similar machines in 3 proceedingss. The maximal capacity of the imper ativeness in the imperativeness store is 160 tones and lower limit is 40 tones. Compared to the criterions, presently the set-up clip is really high. The survey of set-up procedure at the imperativeness store under consideration reveals that it uses the traditional manner of puting dies. All the dies are stored in the rack built really near to the machine cell. Tooling needed for puting up is kept near to the rack. Forklifts, wires and ropes, and skidding methods are used to interchange the dies. Lot of accommodation work is performed to do a good portion during attempt outs. External set-ups are kept ready most of the clip, but still there are issues such as deficiency of be aftering due to some of import and pressing orders due to reshuffle of production agenda, unorganised readying and eventually, some hapless executing of the conversion. Sometimes, it is further deteriorated due to miss of preciseness equipment, no set control bounds, wear and rupture on tooling, fixtures, equipment, deficiency of criterions or mention points and non-documented work methods. The clip required for machine accommodations, trials to run into need ed dimensions or quality facets is besides high. Other discretional clip taken by the compositors besides adds to the apparatus clip. The set-up clip can be reduced significantly through focused and problem-solving low-priced attacks such as organizing a cross-functional squad ; separation of external and internal apparatuss ; standardisation of internal apparatus processs ; usage of standardised parts, tools and fixtures ; decease clamping system that works with a assortment of die sizes ; mounting line up blocks ; usage of preset-positions, gigues and fixtures, lasting mention lines and ram accommodations. For the imperativeness store under considerations, the observation of current apparatus patterns and the setup clip required thereof, there exists a big potency to cut down the set-up clip based on the countries for possible betterment. For the intent of repairing the per centum decrease in apparatus clip, the simulations were conducted at 25 % less and 50 % less and 25 % more. With the 25 % decrease, alterations in production, lead clip and WIP was non much and discernible. Besides, the alterations reflected could be due to the random coevals of apparatus clip harmonizing to the exponential distribution. So, for the intent of change overing the system to JIT, the apparatus clip was reduced clip by 50 % , which is rather possible and practical. Rejection Rate The quality of the constituents being produced by the imperativeness machines is really of import public presentation index. For the imperativeness store under consideration, the mean rejection rate is 3.33 % , the maximal being 4.5 % and the lower limit is 2.0 % . The high per centum of rejection leads to decrease in concluding production measure, bit, rework and increased cost. Due to inability to run into the production agenda because of higher rejection rates, less handiness and higher MTTR, the company has to often run into the marks by overtime. In the imperativeness store, factors impacting reject rate are die quality ( design, wear and care ) , preventative care, proper apparatus, procedure monitoring and operator preparation. Some minor undertakings related to constituents of brake pedal and door beam were successfully completed at the imperativeness store. It shows that some more continual betterment undertakings can be successfully executed to cut down the rejection rate. The simulation theoretical account was run by cut downing the rejection rate by 25 % and 50 % . The decrease in rejection rate provides seeable alterations in the end product. The betterment undertakings completed besides indicate that the decrease in rejection rate of 50 % is accomplishable by systematic analysis, betterment and control. Supplier Quality Management As mentioned above, the sellers are reputed and have a really good record of bringing clip and measure. On the quality forepart, the providers are executing moderately good. Out of 118 bringings over 7 months ; 69 times at that place was no rejection at inward subdivision. For staying 59 times, the mean credence was 91.54 % . The whole batch was rejected merely one time and was non considered in RM agenda. The natural stuff required for the imperativeness store is cut from the procured sheets. So, there are some rejections after shearing due to dimensional and geometrical issues. Supplier quality direction is ensured by puting rejection of inward stuff to zero. Equipment Development for Reduction in MTTR Equipment design and development are really betterments to the production procedure itself as it has a direct and significant impact on the cost, quality, and production clip of merchandises. Simple equipment is easy to manage and later reduces the MTBF, MTTR and improves handiness. Few alterations were made in the bought out machines to ease easy care, to cut down MTTR and better quality of production. These alterations are as follows:Power relays were often neglecting due to fluctuation in electromotive force. Relays were mounted inside the machine near the electric motor and were taking a long clip to mend. The location of the relays was changed and was brought outside of the machine. The replacing clip was reduced from 40 proceedingss to a few proceedingss.For the safety of the operator and to avoid idle shot, exposure detectors were mounted. It reduced the opportunities of accidents and dislocations.The jobs of hiting, cleft, thinning and furrows were reduced by utilizing a cust omized padding cylinder.The breakdown frequence of the bracket of the stacker was reduced by developing new mechanism.The shock absorber pins were responsible for doing the hole oblong and faulty. The bearing country was increased by replacing the earlier little home base with a bigger diameter. Once it was successful in one machine, it had been horizontally deployed to all the machines.The review and care of the clasp assembly was hard and clip consuming because of its location and weight. The squad developed the keeping mechanism for 160T machine which was utile to skid the constituents, cut downing the clip for review and care.Together with the above alterations, rapid motion of the random-access memory during the return shot could besides be implemented. The observation of the causes of dislocation showed that the happenings of electrical jobs were frequent. The failure of parts such as contactors, spiral, relays, coppice, fuse, switches, wires, etc. was the major beginning of d islocation. Depending on the frequence, the spares could be made available in the box attached at the back side of the machines. It would ease easy handiness of the same for look intoing and replacing. Therefore, decrease in MTTR by 25 % and 50 % were simulated for initial tallies of the simulation. 50 % decrease in MTTR was selected for concluding experimentation to hold noticeable alterations in the public presentation indexs and to suit for random coevals of values. Handiness Similarly, the losingss in the production clip were due to decease dislocation job, machine startup, quality defect and rework losingss, velocity losingss, manpower deficits, apparatus and accommodation losingss, stuff related job, seek out and minor arrests, power inaccessibility, and interrupt down losingss. It showed that assorted grounds were lending to the loss in handiness. The apparatus and trial clip could be reduced as explained in apparatus clip decrease. The preventative care of imperativeness machines and dies would cut down the arrests due to machine dislocation and die failure. The breakdown losingss and other care related losingss could be reduced by implementing preventative care. The computerized care information system would bring forth the agenda of care for each hebdomad which included hebdomadally, half annual and annual care activities. This information would be helpful in put to deathing the scheduled care. The preparation of the operator, formation of care and development squads would assist in bettering the handiness the machines. So, it could be considered that the handiness could be improved by 25 % . Loading and Unloading clip In other patterns such as burden and unloading clip, independent care was besides looked in. Loading and droping was done manually. The mean loading clip was 3.70 seconds while droping clip was 3.58 seconds. Use of turn uping pins, pokayoke, proper workstation design, stuff provender and storage system could be used to cut down the burden and unloading clip. Therefore 25 % decrease was assumed in lading and unloading clip. Autonomous Care Care that is performed by the machine operator instead than the care staff is known as independent care. It includes undertakings such as lubricating and fastening machine parts, cleansing, and reviews to observe abnormalcies and possible malfunctions at the earliest. Extra 15 proceedingss of clip was provided while implementing this pattern in the simulation theoretical account. The company location is about 7Km from the OEM site and has third party logistics for the bringing. After each displacement the finished constituents are delivered to the OEM. In the extra 15 proceedingss of clip provided, the operators are supposed to execute independent care. The operators can run any of the imperativeness machines and besides aid during the apparatus of machines. Therefore, operators are involved in a assortment of related undertakings stand foring multifunctional properties of workers. Design for fabrication pattern besides could hold been considered by uniting some operations utilizing progressive dies. Human related patterns, being intangible in nature, were excluded during the simulation survey. After the initial experimentation, the patterns to be included in the concluding experimentation and the degree of fluctuation were finalized. Table 7.10 shows the patterns and matching alterations effected while implementing a peculiar paradigm.